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경력개발 프로그램(CDP)유형에 따른 종업원의 조직몰입, 직무안전성 및 이직의도에 관한 연구

Title
경력개발 프로그램(CDP)유형에 따른 종업원의 조직몰입, 직무안전성 및 이직의도에 관한 연구
Other Titles
(A) STUDY ON THE INFLUENCES OF CAREER DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM ON ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT, JOB SECURITY, AND TURNOVER INTENTION
Authors
김태은
Issue Date
1994
Department/Major
대학원 경영학과
Keywords
경력개발 프로그램종업원조직몰입직무안전성이직의도
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
지금까지 양적성장을 목표로 추구해 오던 국내 주요기업들이 최근들어 경영목표나 이념에 있어서 방향을 전환하여 질적성장과 인재육성에 기업의 역량을 집중시키고 있다. 이러한 추세로 말미암아 인사관리의 방향이 종업원과 조직 모두에 만족감을 주고 양자의 목표를 동시에 충족시킬 수 있는 쪽으로 나아가고 있으며, 기업계와 학계에서는 이를 실현시켜 줄 수 있는 경력개발 프로그램(Career Development Program: C에)에 대한 관심이 고조되고 있다. 경력개발 프로그램은 조직의 목표와 구성원 개개인의 욕구 모두를 충족시킬 수 있는 프로그램으로서, 본 연구에서는 조직의 특성과 직무특성에 따른 경력관리에 초점을 맞추고 종업원의 인지도에 따른 CDP유형을 알아봄으로써 각 조직에 알맞은 CDP유형 개발에 방향성을 제시하고자 한다. 먼저 종업원이 지각하고 있는 CDP유형은 소넨필드(J.A. Sonnenfeld)와 파이펄(M.A. Peiperl)이 제시한 과업할당방식(assignment flow)과 인력공급흐름(supply flow)에 따라 네가지 유형, 즉 요새형(Fortress), 야구팀형(Baseball Team), 아카데미형(Academy), 클럽형(Club)으로 나누어 세 가지 조직행동변수, 즉 조직몰입(organizational commitment), 직무안정성(job security), 이직의도(intent to leave/intent to quit) 와의 관계를 분석하였고, 인적자원 양성유형(human resource development typology) 및 마일즈(R.E. Miles)와 스노우(C.C.Snow)가 분류한 전략결정유형(strategic mission typology)과 CDP유형과의 관계를 살펴보았다. 본 연구는 12개의 국내 기업을 대상으로 설문조사를 수행한 자료를 기초로 하여 교차분석(crosstabs), 빈도분석(frequency), 일원분산분석(oneway ANOVA), T-검증(T-test)등의 통계기법을 이용하여 검증하였다. 그 결과는 다음과 같이 요약된다. 첫째, 조직몰입과 직무안전성에 있어서는 주로 내부에서 인력을 공급하고, 집단을 단위로 과업이 할당되는 클럽형의 조직이 가장 높게 나타난 반면, 외부인력 공급이 빈번하고 개인을 단위로 과업이 할당되는 야구팀형은 가장 낮은 것으로 나타났다. 그리고 이직의도에 있어서는 클럽형, 아카데미형, 요새형, 야구팀형의 순으로 이직의도가 높아졌는데, 이와 같은 결과로 미루어 볼 때 인력공급이 주로 내부에서 이루어지고 과업할당이 집단을 기준으로 행해지는 조직일수록 조직몰입과 직무안정성은 높게 나타나고, 이직의도는 낮아진다는 것을 알 수 있다. 둘째, CDP유형과 인적자원 양성유형과의 관계를 살펴본 결과에 따르면, 집단을 기준으로 과업을 할당하는 클럽형과 요새형은 일반관리자(generalists)를 선호하는 반면, 개인을 기준으로 과업을 할당하는 야구팀형은 전문가(specialists)를 선호하는 것으로 나타났다. 그러나 대부분의 기업에서는 전문가보다는 일반관리자를 더 선호하는 것으로 나타나고 있다. 셋째, CDP유형과 전략결정유형과의 관계에 있어서는 대부분의 종업원들이 자신이 속한 기업의 전략결정유형을 반응자적인 것으로 인지하고 있는 것으로 나타났다. 이러한 연구결과는 개인과 조직의 특성, 그리고 직무의 성격에 따라 그에 적합한 유형의 CDP를 채택해야 한다는 점을 시사하고 있다. 그러나 전반적으로 볼 때, 아직까지 우리나라 기업들은 종업원들의 경력개발에 대한 중요성을 절실히 깨닫고 있지 못한 상태이며, 비록 몇몇 조직에서 그 중요성에 대해 인식하고 있다고 하더라도 구체적인 방안은 확고히 마련되어 있지 않다. 그러므로 본 연구에서는 CDP와 조직행동변수와의 관계를 고찰해 봄으로써 개인과 조직 모두에 CDP의 중요성을 인식시키고 조직의 효율성을 제고하고자 하였다. 이를 위해 향후 CDP에 관한 연구에서는 조직의 CDP와 사회적인 상황과 연계시키는 거시적인 관점의 접근이 필요 하리라 생각된다.;Recently the managerial goals and ideas of the national major corporations have shifted from the quantitative growth to concentrating their efforts on the qualitative growth and the development of human resources. This kind of trend is setting the goal within the Human Resource Management that strives to provide a mutual satisfaction of organization and employees. In order to attain this, greater attetion has been drawn to the Career Development Program (herein after referred to as CDP). CDP is a program that has been developed so as to reconciliate the goals of the organization and the desire of the individual. Thus the aim of this study lies in generating a new direction in CDP typology development that focuses on career management which fulfills particular characteristics of the organization and the job based on the findings of the employee's perception regarding their organization's CDP typology. The data of the employee's perceptions were gathered through a general questionnaire of the 12 national corporations. The CDP typology perceived by the employees has been placed within the classification framework based upon the assignment and supply flows of J. A. Sonnenfeld and M. A. Peiperl, namely the 4 dimensions of Fortress, Baseball Team, Academy. and Club. Firstly, a comparative analysise of the 4 dimensions with each of the 3 types of organizational behavior variables (i.e. Organizational Commitment , Job Security, and Intent to Leave) has been undertaken. Secondly, the relationship between the 4 CDP dimensions of typology and the human resource typology was reviewed. Finally, the 4 dimensions of CDP typology were matched to the strategy mission typology to assertain possible links. The above human resource and strategy mission typologies are based on R. E. Miles and C. C. Snow's classifications. The basic framework used for this study is as follows: ◁표삽입▷ (원문을 참조하세요) The hypotheses of this study, on the basis of this model, are as follows: Hypothesis 1. In accordance with the differences in the types of CDP, the level of organizational commitment, job security and intent to leave will differ. - Hypothesis 1. 1 The level of organizational commitment of employees who perceive the organization's CDP type as Academy and Club types is higher than Fortress and Baseball Team types. - Hypothesis 1. 2 The level of job security of employees who perceive the organization's CDP type as Academy and Club types is higher than Fortress and Baseball Team types. - Hypothesis 1. 3 The level of intent to level of employees who perceive the organization's CDP type as Baseball Team and Fortress types is higher than Academy and Club types. Hypothesis 2. The differences in the types of CDP will relate to the human resource development typology: Baseball Team type and Academy type of organizations favor specialists, and as for, the Club type and Fortress type of organizations favor generalists. Hypothesis 3. The differences in the types of CDP will relate to the strategic mission typology: for Baseball Team type Prospectors strategy mission will be implemented, for Club type Defenders strategy mission, for Academy type Analyzers strategy mission type, and for Fortress type Reactors strategy mission will be implemented. The results of this study can be summarized as follows: 1. With regard to the level of organizaional commitment and job security, the Club type resulted as the highest while the Baseball Team type showed the lowest. And as for the level of intent to leave, it increased in the order of Club, Academy, Fortress to Baseball Team type. It can be deduced from this outcome that when an organization allocated its assignment by group and supplied its human resource within is internal resource organizational commitment and job security resulted in a higher level, inversely correlated to the level of intent to leave. 2. According to the results after having observed the relationship between CDP typology and human resources development typology, it showed that Club type and Fortress type favor generalists while, on the other hand, Baseball Team type and Academy type which allocate its assignments by individual, favor specialists. But it may be stated that most corporations favor generalist. 3. The relationship between CDP typology and strategy mission typology showed that most employees perceived their corporation's strategy mission typology as a Reactors mission type. In conclusion, this paper can state that in process of selection in the type of CDP, the organization must take into account its particular characteristics, not to mention the characteristics of the individual and the nature of the job. But in general, the national corporations have lapse in taking on board the importance of career development of their employees. Of course, although some organizations are fully aware of its importance, no appropriate detailed measures have been implemented, as yet. Therefore, this study was designed to enhance the efficiency of organizations and to make all organizations and individuals recognize the importance of CDP by observing the relationship between CDP and organizational behavior variables. Consequently, even in the same organization, several types of CDP should be appled according to the nature of the job and the department, as well as appropriate schemes and support should be provided in order to materialize this goal. Finally, it should be noted that the future studies of CDP should attempt a macroscopic approach that links the CDP of the organization with its social environment.
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