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中國 南宋의 瀟湘八景圖와 그 淵源 硏究

Title
中國 南宋의 瀟湘八景圖와 그 淵源 硏究
Other Titles
(A) Study on Eight Views of Hsiao and Hsiang River(瀟湘八景圖) of Southern Song(南宋) in China
Authors
宋憙暻
Issue Date
1992
Department/Major
대학원 미술사학과
Keywords
중국남송소상팔경도연원
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
This thesis is a research concerning Eight Views of Hsiao and Hsiang River(瀟湘八景圖) of Southern Song(南宋), China. From ancient times in the orient, good sights were appreciated by creating poetry and drawing of them. The subject of this thesis, Southern Song's 'Eight Views of Hsiao and Hsiang River' depicts the landscape of the point where Hsiao and Hsiang rivers meet in eight subjects. The eight views are 'Wild Geese Descending to Sandbar'(平沙落雁), 'Mountain Market Clear with Rising Mist'(山市晴嵐), 'Returning Sail off Distant Shore'(遠蒲歸帆), 'Fishing Village in Evenig Glow' (漁村多照), 'Autumn Moon over Lake Tung-ting'(洞庭秋月), 'River and Sky in Evening Snow' (江天墓雪), 'Evening Bell Mist - shrouded Temple' (煙寺?鍾) and 'Night Rain on Hsiao and Hsiang'(瀟湘夜雨). The artworks that exist of Southern Song are as follows Wang Hung(王洪 ca.12.C)'s Eight Views of Hsiao and Hsiang River, Li-Sheng's Dream Journey of Hsiao and Hsiang River(舒城李氏, 瀟湘臥游圖), Attribued Mu-ch'i(牧谿 ca.13.C )'s Fishing Village in Evenig Glow, Evening Bell Mist-shrouded Temple, Wild Geese Descending to Sandbar, River and Sky in Evening Snow, Yu Chien(玉澗, ca.12.C-13.C)'s Mountain Market Clear with Rising Mist, Autumn Moon over Lake Tung-ting, and Returning Sail off Distant Shore. The similaritie that tie these works together are that it is in scroll form and that ink rather than colors is used. Excluding the work of Wang Hong, the usage of a handscroll and blank space was the leading style of expression. Also the artist that painted the eight Views of Hsiao and Hsiang River and people around him had many associations with the Zen priests. Hsiao Hsiang River and its surrounding landscapes were good subject matters for early literary works. From as early as the B.C. period, Hsiao Hsiang river appeared as the background of many literary works and served as the place where shamans often held their shaman festivals. It also was the background for the Chinese old tale," Yao-Shun King(堯蕣王.) and Ehuang(娥惶), Nu ying(女英)". These characteristics are well shown in Ch'u Yuan(屈原 B.C.343-287)'s 'The Song of the South(楚辭)'. Among these literary works, "Jiu jia(九歌)" and "Jiu zheng(九章)" uses Hsiao Hsiang river as the mediation to express one's sorrow of being demoted. Upon reaching T'ang period, a person named Liu-yu shi(劉禹錫 772-842) modeled the literary genre after the tradition of Zhuzhijia(竹枝歌). One can know the tradition better if one sees his Zhuzhici(竹枝詞). Thus, Hsiao Hsiang river was designated to express the sorrow of parting according to the history of literature. The first piece of work to portray Hsiao Hsiang Rivers as the subject matters is known to be Attribued Tung Yuan(董源 907-962)'s "Hsiao Hsiang Rivers(瀟湘圖)". The work "Hsiao Hsiang Rivers" from Five Dynasties plays an important role in having made known the beginning of(what is called) Chiang nam-hua(江南畵). Though the identity of the artist who first drew the eight views of Hsiao Hsiang river is not certain, it can be found from various documents that the literary painter Sung ti enjoyed drawing the. Eight Views of Hsiao and Hsiang Rivers. Especially in Shen Gua(沈括 1031-1095)'s' Meng-chi Pi-tan(夢溪筆談)', the artist presents the subjects in the concrete form. Arising from the above, two conclusions can be drawn from the many records. One is that Sung Ti(宋迪)'s 'Eight Views of Hsiao and Hsiang River was the mural drawn on Chang-Sha(長沙)'s temple and the other is that it was in Landscape's form of Fan Kuan(范寬 ca.10.C)'s brush and ink. The stylistic origin of Southern Song's "Eight Views of Hsiao and Hsiang Rivers" can be found in the works T'ang's "I'pin hua(逸格畵)" and. The I'pin hua that began in earnest from the present age was developed by Zen Priests outside the palace. At a time of unstable politics and cultural fatigue, they ignored the traditional 'Gu pa you pi(骨法用筆)' and 'Ying wu shang xing(應物象形)' and instead used the unconventional brush and ink to express their thoughts. This technique of Southern song Zen Priest Artist serves as the basis of the "Eight Views of Hsiao and Hsiang River". But there is a distinct difference between the two periods. Zen came as a magnificent solution for the severe social upheaval during the T'ang dynasty. During the Southern song Dynasty, however, the already spread Zen wasn't very prominent or conspicuous but was internal and introverted. This transferred directly to the artworks. 'Eight Views of Hsiao and Hsiang River' of Southern Song is different from a T'ang's work of art in that it is not drastic but it is the finalization of the artist's heightened hidden thoughts and feelings. The origin of the style where the margin and subject is omitted as in "Eight Views of Hsiao and Hsiang River" of Southern Song can be traced back to Mi fu(米芾 1051-1107), Mi yu-jen(米友人 1086-1165)'s work. Presenting the subject matters such as fog and clouds only in parts, it sends out a suggestive meaning. Also the almost fully covered handscroll is one of the styles Zen Priest Artists enjoyed using. Needless to say, these stylistic elements and the eight views of the Hsiao and Hsiang Rivers as a subject matter was a super way for the Zen Priests to express themselves. Namely, beginning with the rational understanding of nature, Song Dynasty's Landscape used expressions related to light, clouds, and more importantly the artist's emotion was introduced. In keeping with the above, the Zen Priest Artists believed in the concept that their work served as the basis of Zen society and used abstraction of a matter as a step towards enlightenment. China's Eight Views of Hsiao and Hsiang River development centered in Southern Song, transmitted to Japan and Korea. From This, These contries established individual developments suited to each one's own marks and characteristics. In Korea's situation, it is assumed that Eight Views of Hsiao and Hsiang River came in at the time of Korea Dynasty(高麗朝) and many were produced during Cho-sun Dynasty(朝鮮朝). But different from Southern Song, there are many forms of picture books and scrolls but no instance of Eight Views of Hsiao and Hsiang River poem being written down. Also the beginning and end of the eight subjects' development are fixed same. That is to say, through this subject Eight Views of Hsiao and Hsiang River, the one of the ideal landscape was established. Therefore, Southern Song's Eight Views of Hsiao and Hsiang River as a kind of Zen Painting presents the concept of universality of a harmonious society and exhibits well the characteristics of the artist.;동양문화권에는 예로 부터 경치가 좋은 명승지를 소재로 하여 詩. 畵를 지으며 이를 감상하여 왔다. 中國 南宋의 瀟湘八景圖 역시 中國 양자강 이남의 瀟江과 湘江證이 만나는 지점의 경치를 여덟주제로 하여 그린 그림이다. 이에 여덟주제란 平沙落雁, 山市晴嵐, 遠浦歸帆, 漁村夕照, 洞庭秋月, 江天暮雪, 煙寺晩鍾, 瀟湘夜雨이다. 瀟湘江을 소재로 한 문학과 회화는 이미 南宋 이전에 존재하였다. 문학에 있어서는 그 역사가 더욱 유구한데 대표적인 작가와 작품을 나열하면 屈原(343-287B.C)의 楚辭와 劉禹錫(772-842)의 작품들이다. 이들 작품은 堯舜임금과 女英, 娥皇의 고사를 바탕으로 이별의 슬픔을 노래하였고 이에 瀟湘江 유역은 작가의 안타까운 감정이 반영된 매개체임과 동시에 작가와 사랑하는 대상을 갈라놓은 장애물이었다. 瀟湘八景圖가 언제부터 형성되었는 지는 정확하지 않다. 다만 현존기록으로 이미 北宋代는 瀟湘八景圖가 유행하였고 北宋의 문인화가였던 宋迪(12세기활동)이라는 인물이 瀟湘八景을 즐겨 그렸다는 사실을 알 수 있을 뿐이다. 특히 沈括(1031-1095)의 「夢溪筆談」은 宋迪이 그린 瀟湘八景의 여덟주제를 구체적으로 제시하였고 그 밖의 기록으로 宋迪이 長沙의 八閣臺 壁上에 八景을 그렸고 양식은 范寬(10세기)을 이은 평원산수의 일종임을 추측할 수 있다. 北宋代에 형성된 것으로 추측되는 瀟湘八景圖가 南宋代엔 들어서면서 본격적으로 제작되었고 작품으로는 王洪(紹與연간활약)의 「瀟湘八景圖」, 舒城李氏의 「瀟湘臥遊圖卷」, 牧谿(至元연간활약)의 「漁材夕照圖」, 「煙寺晩鍾圖」, 「平沙落雁圖」, 「江天暮雪圖」, 玉澗(英宗연간활약)의 「山市晴嵐圖」, 「洞庭秋月圖」, 「遠浦歸帆圖」 등이 현존한다. 南宋 瀟湘八景圖는 시와 그림이 동시에 등장하는 전형적인 詩畵一致가 이루어진 작품이다. 中國회화사에 있어서 전통이 깊은 詩書一致는 회화작품에 시를 贊한 題畵時와 화면에 작가의 시감을 이입한 詩情畵 두가지로 나눌 수 있는데 南宋의 瀟湘八景圖는 이 두가지가 동시에 조화된 예이다. 그리고 南宋의 瀟潮八景圖는 逸格山水畵의 확립에 있어서 교량의 역할을 하는 작품이다. 唐代에서 부터 본격화 되었다는 逸格畵는 궁중밖의 선승들에 의하여 인물화로 발전하였다. 당시 불안한 정치와 이에 따른 문화의 침체기에서 그들은 이른바 전통적 표현이라 할 수 있는 骨法用筆과 應物象形을 거부하면서 파격적인 筆과 墨을 이용하여 형태를 무시하면서, 엉뚱함, 괴벽, 기괴함을 나타내려 하였다. 唐代가 격심한 사회변동으로 말미암아 禪宗이 커다란 치유책으로 나타났던 반면 宋代에는 이미 禪思想이 만연해 있어서 그다지 밖으로 드러나지 않는 민감하면서도 내향적이며 폐쇠적이다. 그리고 逸格山水畵로서의 본격적인 양식은 米芾(1051-1107), 米友仁(1086-1165)의 「雲山圖」에서 도입하였는데 구체적으로 살펴보면 沒骨에 의한 墨의 처리, 윤곽의 파괴, 無根物의 시도에 따른 중경의 생략, 여백의 사용 등이 이에 해당된다. 이러한 양식을 南宋代의 瀟湘八景圖가 흡수하여 또 다른 逸格山水畵를 확립하였다. 이러한 南宋의 瀟湘八景圖는 禪的인 요소를 많이 포함하고 있는데 앞서 언급한 양식 이외에도 瀟湘八景이라는 소재에서 찾아 볼 수 있다. 작가는 어촌생활을 하는 사람이라면 누구나 볼 수 있는 일생생활의 한 단면을 소재로 삼아서 사물의 묘사가 아닌 이미지의 표현을 추구하여 하였다. 즉 일상적이면서도 비시각적인 것을 주관적으로 해석하여 시각화하려고 애쓴 것이다. 그리하여 瀟湘八景圖는 이상화된 산수도 아니고 사실적인 산수도 아닌 작가와 자연사이에 교류가 이루어진 心象의 산수화이고 이는 平常心을 강조하는 禪思想을 바탕으로 逸格畵의 옷을 빌어서 나타난 것이다. 禪에 심취했던 南宋의 화가들은 불안한 사회에 대한 안식처로 보편적인 瀟湘八景을 선택하였고 逸格이라는 자신만의 기법으로 得悟의 경지에 이르려 하였다. 더우기 이들은 자연을 내면화하면서 자신의 시각 언어로 禪林사회에 기본이 되는 逸의 개념을 화폭에 담고자 하였고 禪僧화가의 관법의 하나로 삼은 것이다. 이렇듯 南宋의 瀟湘八景圖는 逸格山水畵의 확립에 있어서 그리고 후대에 제작될 瀟湘八景圖에 있어서 전형적인 모태가 된 것이다.
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