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16世紀 士林派 祭文 硏究

Title
16世紀 士林派 祭文 硏究
Other Titles
(A) Study on the Funeral Orations of the Sarimpa in 16th Century
Authors
李恩英
Issue Date
1990
Department/Major
대학원 국어국문학과
Keywords
사림파제문16세기국어국문학
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
본고는 지금까지 漢文學 硏究에서 소외되었던 散文 硏究의 일환으로서, 士林派의 활동시기에 발전하고 있는 祭文의 文學性과 時代的 特徵을 把握하기 위해 시도되었다. 논의의 전개과정과 도출된 결론은 다음과 같다. Ⅱ장에서는 士林派 祭文의 成立에 영향을 미치고 있는 종적, 횡적인 배경이 검토되었다. 祭文은 神에게 供物을 바치고, 人間의 言語를 전달하는 義式文으로 출발하여, 時代的 志向을 반영하고 作家意識이 가미된 문학적 표현양식으로 발전하게 되었다. 士林派 祭文은 家廟設置가 法制化되고 孝悌忠信의 윤리가 강조되던 사회분위기에서 태동하기 시작하여, 士禍와 黨爭을 겪게 되는 16세기 이후에 크게 발달하고 있다. Ⅲ장에서는 敍述構造를 중심으로 作品의 內在的 檢討가 이루어졌다. 祭文은 세단락의 서술구조로 이루어져 있는데, 이중에서 儀式的 技能을 강조하기 위해 삽입되는 導入部와 終結部의 형식구는 省略 또는 變異되고 있었다. 展開部 중에서 亡者의 行蹟記述部分은 性理學的 理念에 바탕하여 보편적인 가치가 반영되고, 인물의 社會的 役割이 강조되는 부분으로서 亡者에 대한 稱頌과 讚揚에 중점이 놓이고 있었다. 그러나 作家의 感情表出 부분은 특정이념이나 보편적 가치와는 별도로 存在하는 人間 本然의 感情이 투영되는 부분으로서, 作家가 亡者에 대해 느끼는 솔직한 슬픔이나 죽음에 대한 감상등이 표현되고 있었다. 이전시대에는 前者의 역할이 중시되었으나 士林派에 와서 後者의 기능이 강화되고 있다는 점에서, 이 시기 祭文이 作家의 感情表現樣式으로 활용되고 있음을 확인할 수 있었다. Ⅳ장에서는 祭文에 나타난 內容的 特徵이 裏面情緖의 표출양상과 天命에 대한 관점, 죽음에 대한 인식측면을 중심으로 검토되었다. 그 과정에서 性理學的 觀念이 不信되거나 再考되는 측면이 나타났으며, 佛敎나 道敎式의 死生觀이 노출되기도 하였는데, 이러한 면모가 나타나게 된데는 원칙과 실제 현실과의 괴리가 심각했던 당대 정치적 상황의 영향이 컸기 때문인 것으로 간주되었다. Ⅴ장에서는 士林派 祭文의 文學史的 意義가 論議되었다. 士林派 祭文은 정치, 사회적 특수여건에서 배태된 사람들의 感像的인 情操를 반영하고, 대외적으로 표방할 수 없는 人間 本然의 모습을 표현하는 敍述樣式으로 정착하고 있었다. 전통적인 緖情樣式인 詩에서마저 表現論的 技能보다 效用論的 技能이 강조되고 있을 때, 祭文이라는 기존의 散文樣式이 個人의 感情表出 技能을 맡게 된 것이다. 士林派 祭文에서 강화되기 시작한 감정표출의 기능은 이후 제문에도 지속적으로 수용되어, 漢文祭文은 물론, 歌辭形式의 한글제문을 발달시키고 있다. 이는 감정표현 양식으로서의 제문이 大衆化되면서 士大夫 男性에서 閨房의 女性에 이르기까지 폭넓은 作家層과 享有層을 확보하게 되었음을 의미한다. 따라서, 載道文學論의 관점에서 중시되어온 調和나 和解의 측면 이외에도 表現論的 文學樣式이 발달하게된 제반여건과 관련하여 不調和나 對立的 측면까지가 士林派 文學의 한부분으로 이해되어야 할 것이다.;This study is attempted to understand the literary nature and period qualities of the funeral orations uhich had developed at the time of Sarimpa (one class of Confucian scholars) as a part of the study of prose that has been disregarded in the study of Chinese literature. In the discussion the study takes following development prakdures and sees following results : In chapter ii the background having influence on the establishment of the funeral orations of Sarimpa has been reviewed vertically and horizontally. The funeral orations originally had started as a sort of ritual statement of paying a tribute to gods and of transmitting human languages and finally came to develop into the literary expression modes where the orientation of the times was reflected and the author's spirit was added. Quickening in the social environment where a household shrine wa regalized, the ethics such as filial piety, reverence, royalty, and faith was emphasaized, and the theory of teachings -first literature exercised its influence on the society, the funeral orations of the Sarimpa were flourishing after the 16th century when the country had undergone calamaties of literati and party conflicts. Chapter iii discusses the orations intrinsically, especially their description structures. Among the three drscription structures of the funeral oration, such formal constructs as the introduction and the conclusion, are going through abbreviation and modification. The description of personal histories for the deceased in the introduction is based on the doctrins of Chu-tzu'' and therefore reflects the general values, and empahsizes the social role of the fogure with placing stress on praise and admiration for the deceased. The part where an author betrays his emotion, however, mirrors the intrinsically humanic sensibility existing apart from the particular thoughts or general values, expressing an author's undisguised sorrow for the deceased and his thoughts about the death. In that while prior to the Sarimpa era the former was regarded as of greater importance, with its advent the latter came to be accounted much of, it can be confirmed that the funeral orations in those times had been used as a kind of form to express individual emotion. In chapter iv, this study examines the qualities of the conrents shown in the funeral orations with the expressive aspeers of the inside emotion, the srandpount about providence and the side of the cognition of death as the central fgures. In its process not only are some of Chu-tzu'' found to be disbelieved or thought differently but also the viewpoints of life-and-death as in the Buddism or Taoism are discovered. Seemingly, the reason why such things had been expressed is that the funeral orations had been much influenced by the political situations in those days in which the fundamental aspects were a far cry from the practical reality. Chapter v describes the meaning of the funeral orations written by Sarimpa in the literature history. The funeral orations of the Sarimpa was becoming fixed as another description form to reflect sentimental atmosphere of those who were seperadted from the particular political or social situauions and to betray the intrinsically humanic appearance which was not expressible outwards then. When even in the traditional lyrical form, the poem, the efficiency function overweighted the expression function, the existing prosic form, the funeral oration, took the place of the expression function of individual emotion. The expression function reinforced in the funeral orations of the Sarimpa gad been continuously accomodated in the funeral orations after that, developing Kasa-styled funeral orations wretten in Hangul, to say nothing of those in classical Chinese. I t means that with the popularization of the funeral orations as a form to express one's emotion they could secure a wide range or authors and readers from the males of noble birth to the females of respectable citizen. Therefore, in addition to the aspects such as harmony and reconciliation which were thought much of in the viewpoint of the theory of teachings -first literature, the aspects of disharmony any antagonism in relation to the every condition where the expressional literature forms had devdloped should be recognized as a part of the Sarimpa literature. To disclose the relations between the funeral orations and other literary forms and to approach the nature of the Sarimpa literature in whole remain for further strdy.
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