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찰스 레니 매킨토시(Charles Rennie Mackintosh)작품에 나타난 근대성

찰스 레니 매킨토시(Charles Rennie Mackintosh)작품에 나타난 근대성
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Modernity in the Works of Charles Rennie Mackintosh
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대학원 미술사학과
이화여자대학교 대학원
The artistic activities of Charles Rennie Mackintosh (1868~1928) range form architecture to interior decoration and furniture designing to fine arts and applied arts. Mackintosh made an effort to realize a perfect from by integrating various factors that had existed at his days. His effort is meaningful not only in offering a new angle on modern arts but also in having its own authority as an artistic view toward satisfying the new aesthetic desires in the process of advancing toward the 20th century, different form the 19th one. This study was intended to focus on in what ways those various factors that had existed in the 19th century were integrated by Mackintosh and in what artistic styles for the new society they appeared. His architecture activities, which began in 1893, reached the peak with the Glasgow School of Art in 1899. The encounter of traditional architectural factors, modern materials and new techniques, which had been sought by Mackintosh, saw its completion in the Glasgow School of Art, and his initial architecture stands for the rationalism of the integration of various factors. Moreover, the development of architectural structures that have realized both functionalism and aesthetics through the process of simplifying forms and a new proportional system can be interpreted as progressive in the era. In addition, regarding furniture, interior space and the entire appearance as one single space in his concept of interior designing, Mackintosh developed his capacity to satisfy not only practical desires but decorative expressions by using his concept for an ornamental purpose as well as functionalism. This means that he did not adhere to functionalism or aesthetics, which emerged as a trend at that time, and he intended to display decorative effects only by geometric forms, which are one of the most functionalistic and finest motives, and divided spaces. The process of integration in the field of painting is presented through re-expressing as a tech drawing the symbolic painting motive of Mackintosh's initial fine arts and changing it into designing factors. Textile designing, which was started with fine arts' tech drawing in the form of plastic arts, contains the designing concept of Mackintosh, which means the fundamental identification with plastic factors. However, progressive creativity and structural rationality, which are founded in all his fields, had been considered as a style resulted from a conflict between tradition and modernity at the beginning of the 20th century. Also, it is true that he had not drawn attention till the 1960s except for the decorative aspect of his works. Nevertheless, he tried to suggest that factors of space formation like architecture, interior decoration and painting are made by living ‘people’, who are considered as individuals who need artistic works, not as the public, and he intended to provide spaces for ‘humans’. This was an effort to seek perfection as a more comprehensive concept, and at that time was a new artistic view and also an aesthetics sought by Mackintosh. In this study, the author took a try to connect his effort to find scientific rationality, the integration process of fine arts and decorative arts, and artistic essence in abstracted forms with the view of the integration of various modern trends in the 19th century. The modernity exposed through his works is the ideal status created by a subtle balance of the integration of conflicting factors.;찰스 레니 매킨토시(Charles Rennie Mackintosh, 1868-1928)의 예술은 건축에서부터 시작하여, 실내장식과 가구디자인, 순수회화와 응용미술에 까지 이르고 있다. 매킨토시는 당시에 존재했던 다양한 요소들의 통합을 통해 완전한 형태를 구현하려는 노력을 시도하였다. 이러한 노력은 근대 예술의 새로운 시점을 제공했다는 데 의미가 있는 것은 물론 19세기와는 다른 20세기로 나아가는 과정에서의 새로운 미적욕구를 충족시키기 위한 예술관으로서의 당위성도 지니고 있는 것이다. 이에 본 논문은 19세기말 혼재했던 다양한 요소들이 매킨토시에 의해 어떠한 방식으로 통합되어 새로운 사회에 부합되는 예술 양식으로 나타나는지에 주목하고자 한다. 1893년부터 시작된 매킨토시의 건축 작업은 1899년 Glasgow school of Art를 통해 절정에 다다르게 된다. 매킨토시가 추구한 전통 건축요소와 근대적인 재료, 신기술의 만남은 Glasgow school of Art에서 완성되었으며, 매킨토시의 초기 건축은 다양한 요소의 통합이라는 합리주의를 표방하고 있다. 또한 형태의 단순화 과정과 새로운 비례체계가 어울려져 기능주의와 심미성을 갖춘 건축물로의 발전은 시대적으로 앞선 것이라 할 수 있다. 또한 매킨토시의 실내 디자인의 개념은 가구, 실내 공간, 건축물의 전체 외관에 이르기 까지 하나의 총체적 공간으로 보고, 실용적인 욕구와 장식적 표현을 모두 충족시키기 위해 기능성 뿐 만 아니라 장식품으로 사용하는 기지를 발휘하고 있다. 이는 매킨토시가 기능주의나 혹은 당시 유행했던 유미주의의 극단적인 태도를 취하지 않음에 있으며, 가장 기능적이면서 순수한 모티브인 기하학적 형태와 공간 구분만으로 장식적 효과를 나타내고자 함에 있다. 회화의 영역에서의 통합화 과정은 매킨토시의 초기 순수미술의 상징주의 회화 모티브를 도식화하여 디자인적 요소로 바꾸는 작업으로 나타나게 된다. 순수미술의 조형적 형태의 도식화에서 출발한 직물 디자인은 순수회화의 조형요소와 본질적으로 동일함을 의미하는 매킨토시의 디자인의 개념을 나타내고 있다. 이에 본 고에서는 과학적 합리성과 순수 미술과 장식미술의 통합과정, 그리고 예술의 중요한 본질을 추상화 된 형태에서 찾으려는 매킨토시의 노력이 19세기의 다양한 근대적 조류의 통합이라는 관점과 연계시켜 살펴보았다. 매킨토시 작품을 통해 본 근대성은 상반되는 요소의 통합의 미묘한 균형이 주는 최상을 상태를 제시하고 있는 것이다.
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