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東岳 李安訥 詩文學 硏究

Title
東岳 李安訥 詩文學 硏究
Other Titles
A Study on Dongak Yi Ahn-nul's Poetry
Authors
배주연
Issue Date
2005
Department/Major
대학원 국어국문학과
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Doctor
Abstract
본고는 東岳 李安訥(1571-1637) 시문학의 양상과 특징을 살피고 그 문학사적 의의를 밝히고자 시도되었다. 이른바 목릉성세의 시기인 16C 말에서 17C 초를 살았던 이안눌은 文集에 4천여 首의 방대한 詩作을 남긴 인물이다. 李荇에서 李安訥을 거쳐 李植에 이르는 덕수 이씨의 가통과 여러 지방의 외직을 맡았던 관력, 차천로, 이정구, 권필, 홍서봉, 조위한을 비롯한 뛰어난 문인들과 관계되는 폭넓은 교유관계 등이 문학 산출의 배경이 되었다. 특히 󰡔東岳集󰡕의 체재는 ‘一官一錄’의 원칙 하에서 地志的 관심을 반영하여 任地에 따라 그 시기에 지어진 작품을 한 권으로 묶고, 그것을 시대 순으로 합하는 편차방식을 택하고 있다. 따라서 그의 시는 저작 시기의 추정이 편리하며 각 시권에 따른 주요한 작품 경향과 특징을 파악하기에 용이하다. 이에 본고는 이안눌의 작품 경향을 창작의 배경과 관련된 생애 체험을 위주로 ‘戰亂’, ‘任地’, ‘使行’으로 범주화하여 그 문학적 특징과 의의를 考究하였다. 이안눌은 상상의 虛景이나 추체험이 아닌 현실에서의 체험을 기반으로 한 문학을 견지하였다. 이러한 특성은 ‘현장성’과 ‘현재성’에 대한 부각이라는 양상으로 표출되며 이는 ‘현장 견문 중심의 묘사’와 ‘일록화를 통한 일상의 문학화’라는 두 가지 측면으로 정리할 수 있다. 첫째, 이안눌의 시세계는 각 지역에서의 다양한 체험을 기반으로 하여 ‘현장에서의 견문’을 중심으로 實在的 삶을 구체적으로 형상화하였다. 작품 중에서 여성 정감의 遊仙詩나 宮詞, 香奩體 시가 등을 찾을 수 없다는 것도 이러한 점을 반증하는 것으로 볼 수 있다. 虛景으로써 낭만적 상상력을 자극하여 반향을 일으키기보다는 현실을 근거로 하여 當代의 삶을 사실적이고 현장감 있는 필치로 시화하였던 것이다. 이러한 현실인식에서 壬 ․ 丙 兩亂의 慘狀을 逼眞한 묘사로 형상화하였으며, 육로와 해로에 의한 두 번의 使行 기록을 통해 쇠락해가는 明의 실상을 시화하기도 하였다. 특히 이안눌이 피란의 절박한 행로에서 현장 보고의 형식으로 자신의 전란 체험을 묘사한 <當死歎>, <食菜>, <母別子> 등을 비롯한 「續集」의 시편들과 이후 각 지역의 관리로 부임하여 참혹했던 전쟁을 떠올리며 읊은 <四月十五日>, <入東萊府>, <題機張縣>을 비롯한 작품들은 주목할 만하다. <當死歎>에서 목하의 적에게 쫓기는 상황에서 차라리 죽는 것이 낫다고 한 탄식이나 <食菜>에서 피란 생활의 굶주림으로 인하여 풀뿌리와 잎을 씹지만 그 맛이 고기 맛이라고 형용한 묘사, <七月二十六日>에서 龜船 將軍이 이룬 閑山大捷의 치적을 기리는 칭송 등은 전란 현장에서의 생생한 체험이기에 그 의미가 더욱 절절하다. 다양한 지역의 목민관으로 역임할 때 역시 자신이 처한 관할지의 土風民物에 대한 관심으로 기후, 풍물, 풍속 등을 시어로 수용한 작품을 창작하였다. <食倭橘>에서는 東萊 지역에서 처음 접한 귤의 외형과 유래, 익는 시기 등을 적었으며, 정월대보름의 풍속을 담은 <上元>을 비롯한 작품에서 단오, 한식, 추석 등 우리 고유의 풍물과 풍속을 시화하였다. 또한 옛 도읍지를 지나며 단군을 비롯한 혁거세, 온조왕 등 역사 속 인물들을 用事하여, 민족의 긍지와 역사의식을 되새기고자 하였다. <臨溟館>, <雲頭城>, <黃土嶺作>의 작품에서도 從軍客으로서의 체험을 살려, 邊塞의 이향적 풍물, 풍습, 생활상 등을 구체적으로 시화하였다. 이러한 ‘현장 견문 중심의 묘사’는 實地에 대한 각별한 인식이며, 삶과 밀착된 현실에 대한 관심에서 기인한 것이다. 시로써 使行 여정을 일록화하고 날짜와 기후 여건, 지형에 대한 자세한 주를 함께 달거나, 과거의 역사 혹은 개인적 경험을 회억하는 장소에서 현장성을 확보하고자 하는 태도는 모두 실제를 시상 전개의 실마리로서 중시하는 데에서 비롯된 것이다. 둘째, 紀實의 시세계는 나아가 ‘일록화를 통한 일상의 문학화’ 경향을 보인다. 특히 권필의 죽음과 이괄의 난에 연루되어 옥사를 겪은 후 지은 만년의 작품은 소재 취택과 형상화 방식에 있어서 前 시기와 차이를 보인다. 이 시기 작품은 任地와 流配地에서의 신변잡기적 일상까지 한시 속에 담아내려는 시도를 보이며, 생활 주변의 세사에 대한 日記的 기록 방식을 취한다. <蘿薄沈菜 呈官人>, <鏡城雪中作>, <正月初十日> 등의 작품을 통해, 배고픔, 치통, 흰머리, 나물, 김치 등의 소소한 일상을 생동감 있는 묘사로 형상화한다. 이와 같이 실제 체험을 바탕으로 다양한 소재를 끌어와 시화하였던 점은 중국 한시에서나 보고 들었던 상상의 추체험 세계라든지 성리학적 순수 관념의 세계를 시화하던 태도와는 분명 대조되는 것이다. 물론, 이안눌 역시 중국의 문학 관습을 동경하였던 17세기 창작 전통으로부터 완전히 자유롭지는 않았지만, 자기와 무관한 가공의 시적 상황에 만족하는 기교 주의적 창작 기법으로부터 벗어나 존재하고 있는 ‘지금’, ‘여기’를 재인식하고자 한 것이다. 즉, 그의 시문학은 ‘實在’의 시 ․ 공간에 대한 각별한 인식 하에서, 時宜에 맞는 비판의식을 가지고 자신의 체험을 적실한 언어로 형상화하였다는 점에서 그 의미가 부각된다. 이는 ‘시’의 가치를 새롭게 인식하여 자신이 처한 ‘지금’, ‘여기’를 존중하는 조선 중기 문풍의 한 경향을 보여준다. 따라서 체험을 기반으로 한 前後 當代의 핍진한 삶을 沈鬱과 雄渾의 풍격으로 그려내고자 했던 이안눌의 시정신은 이러한 점에서 그 특별한 가치를 가진다 하겠다.;Dongak Yi Ahn-nul, who lived in the late 16th and early 17th centuries, is a literary man ranked as one of the two genius including Gwon pil in the age of cultural prosperity. Regarding the 2913 Chinese poems and 4379 pieces that he left, the system of (the collection of Yi Ahn-nul's literary works) selected an editing method in which literary works were divided and made up into a volume in accordance with each time when the poet was in the place of his work and those works were integrated chronologically, thus, it may be easy to estimate the time of writing. Accordingly this study categorized the tendency of Dongak Yi Ahn-nul(1571-1637)'s works into three criteria such as “Experience in the disturbances of war”, “Experience in the places where he was posted” and “Experience dispatched as an envoy” by focusing on his special life experiences related to the background of his composition of poems, extracted his literary characteristics and investigated the significance in the history of literature. First, attention was paid to his “Chinese poems on participation in the war,” given that Dongak Yi Ahn-nul was a figure who went through this war and indeed experienced the reality of brutal invasion and massacre. His Chinese poems on war experience was divided into “A realistic description of war scenes” and “A conflict between the expression of loyalty and reality.” In the former chapter, Dongak Yi Ahn-nul considered that he reported refuge scenes and postwar impoverishment, as well as the system's contradiction and his critical mind against it. In the latter chapter, he dealt with conflicts that he felt as a governmental official in the process of making peace and amity with Japan. Second, attention was paid to review Dongak Yi Ahn-nul's poetic world focusing on the point that his Chinese poems had anthropogeographic characteristics that specific information on each area was detailed and supplemented based on the special experiences of the author who had filled his posts as a governor in many areas. With regard to anthropogeographic characteristics of Yi Ahn-nul's Chinese poems, he creased works in which climates, lifestyles and customs were accepted through poetic words on the ground of particular senses he felt about the space and time of his post. He had unique views in making each area's native characteristics into poems. He also showed interest in new lifestyles, the relevant areas' natural features and the life of those who lived in the areas. Therefore, these poems, in which journeys, climates and customs were shaped on the basis of various field experiences across the nation, may have special meanings as a geographical book. As for the anthropogeographic characteristics of his poems, he did not hesitate to insert proper place names including those of mountains, rivers and villages or proper nouns naming people such as pen names and official posts. He also intended to mediate national pride and historical mind by borrowing historic characters such as Dan-gun, Hyeokgeose and King Onjo. Such an attitude is interpreted as the dimension in which he tried to secure reality and concreteness for the contents of poems, rather than as a crude sense of words or poetic charms. In particular, the poetic structure, where general anthropogeographic facts in his place of post were finely connected and composed including native customs and people or proper names of places and persons in the Chosun Dynasty, may come from the author's purpose to express his “intended landscapes” effectively. Third, attention was paid to review Dongak Yi Ahn-nul's envoy poetry by classifying it into several items on the basis of Jocheonnok[朝天錄](1601) and Jocheonhurok[朝天後錄](1632), both of which were his envoy records, and then a comparative review was done on characteristics and significance found in this examination. The period from the late 16th century to the early 17th century was the transition period from Ming Dynasty to Ch'ing Dynasty. Accordingly, studying the envoy poetry of Yi Ahn-nul may help review the aspects of the envoy literature toward Ming Dynasty in the mid-Chosun Dynasty. At the same time, it may also make it possible to go through the perception of Ming and Ch'ing Dynasties by Chosun's literary men in the face of the upheaval times referred to as the transition period from Ming Dynasty to Ch'ing Dynasty. A division was made into the 1601 envoy in which Dongak Yi Ahn-nul worked as Jinhasa Seojanggwan(進賀使 書狀官: a diplomat in charge of documentation) and the 1632 envoy in which he held the post of Jucheongbusa(奏請副使: a councilor to Ch'ing Dynasty), coming and going to China through a sea route. Then, the background and the journey of each envoy were examined, and a consideration was made on the ground of main characteristic contents of both records. Jocheonnok[朝天錄](1601), a record about the envoy through the customary land route, was divided into “shame and pride as a Chosun envoy” and “the identification of Confucianism through historical books” for review. Jocheonhurok[朝天後錄](1632), which was about the envoy through the dynamic sea route, could be divided into “a sense of crisis about changes in the situation” and “a sneer at the sea route's agitation and superstition” for analysis. Then, through the analysis on the contents of Yi Ahn-nul's envoy poetry, characteristics were drawn. These characteristics could be summed as follows: first, recording the envoy journey in a diary through poetry; second, emphasizing the presence of personal experiences; and third, changes in awareness starting from the War against Ch'ing in 1627. Such research in this thesis helped review the development and changes in Dongak Yi Ahn-nul's awareness which were revealed along with the historical shifts of the War against Ch'ing, and examine Chosun people's view on China during the transition period from Ming Dynasty to Ch'ing Dynasty. In the future, additional reviews will also possibly be made on the overall aspects of the Chosun envoy literature toward Ming Dynasty diachronically on the basis of this study. Synchronically, it may be a significant work to study in comparison with envoy records of others such as Hong Ho who accompanied Dongak Yi Ahn-nul in 1632. The characteristic of gisil(紀實: documenting the facts) which flew through Yi's poetic world could be investigated in the aspects of “Description centered in actual experience” and “Literary creation of daily life through daily recording”. First, the most outstanding property on the configuration method of his special experience like “Disturbance of war”, “Experience in the places where he was posted” and “Envoy's trip” lay the stress on “The reality of experience.” He realistically shaped his desperate life in battling field based on his unique experience with the war, envoy's mission and appointed places. Second, as the tendency of “Literary creation of daily life through daily recording” played central role which threaded his poetic world through, but the facial aspects of his expression underwent changes. As well as a moment of emotional peak and a special occasion, ordinary everyday life was fictionally created as poems. By reviewing the status where the poetry of Yi Ahn-nul, who lived from the late 16th century to the early 17th century, was situated in the history of the mid-Chosun literature, the results were as follows: First, his poetry formed a currency of practical literature grounded on the reality in a series of social and cultural upheaval at that time. Second, Yi's hakdangsi(學唐詩: poems composed in a literary style of the Tang age) escaped from the previous declining mandangpung(晩唐風: a literary style of the Tang age) and aimed at the majestic seongdangpung(盛唐風: a literary style of the Tang age). Therefore, there stood a special literary value in Yi Ahn-nul's poetic mind, in which he attempted to express the realistic life in the postwar times through a thorough perception of reality on the ground of his experience as a governmental official in the mid-Chosun Dynasty.
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