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유아의 개인변인 및 어머니의 정서성과 유아의 정서 발달, 사회적 능력의 관계

Title
유아의 개인변인 및 어머니의 정서성과 유아의 정서 발달, 사회적 능력의 관계
Other Titles
The relationship between children's individual variables, mothers' emotionality and the children's emotional development, social competence
Authors
안라리
Issue Date
2005
Department/Major
대학원 유아교육학과
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Doctor
Abstract
본 연구의 목적은 만 3, 4, 5세 유아의 개인변인 및 어머니의 정서성과 유아의 정서 발달 및 사회적 능력과의 관계를 알아보고 정서 발달과 사회적 능력간의 관계를 알아봄으로써 유아기 정서 발달의 중요성을 확인하는 것이다. 또한, 유아가 사회적으로 유능한 인간으로 성장하는데 필요한 사회적 능력과 관련 변인과의 관계를 알아봄으로써 교사 및 부모에게 유아를 지도하는데 있어서 효율적인 방향을 제시하는 것이다. 이와 같은 연구 목적에 따른 구체적인 연구 문제는 다음과 같다. 1. 유아의 개인 변인 및 어머니의 정서성과 유아의 정서 발달은 관계가 있는가? 1-1. 유아의 개인변인과 유아의 정서 발달은 관계가 있는가? 1-2. 어머니의 정서성과 유아의 정서 발달은 관계가 있는가? 2. 유아의 개인 변인 및 어머니의 정서성이 유아의 정서 발달에 미치는 영향력은 어떠한가? 3. 유아의 개인 변인 및 어머니의 정서성과 유아의 사회적 능력은 관계가 있는가? 3-1. 유아의 개인변인과 유아의 사회적 능력은 관계가 있는가? 3-2. 어머니의 정서성과 유아의 사회적 능력은 관계가 있는가? 4. 유아의 개인 변인 및 어머니의 정서성이 유아의 사회적 능력에 미치는 영향력은 어떠한가? 5. 유아의 정서 발달과 유아의 사회적 능력은 관계가 있는가? 본 연구는 전라남도 S시에 위치한 유치원에 재원중인 만 3, 4, 5세 유아 72명과 담임 교사 및 어머니를 대상으로 하였다. 연구도구로는 유아의 기질을 알아보기 위해서는 천희영(1992)의 기질척도를 사용했고, 어머니의 정서표현성을 알아보기 위해서 Halberstadt(1986)의 Family Emotional Expressiveness Questionnaire(FEQ)를 번안하여 사용하였으며, 어머니의 정서반응성을 알아보기 위해서는 Saarni(1989b)의 Parental Attitude toward Child Expressiveness Scale(PACES)를 번안하여 사용하였다. 유아의 정서표현을 알아보기 위해서는 유치원의 자유선택활동시간을 이용하여 Hubbard(2001)의 관찰 도구를 수정하여 시간표집으로 관찰하였으며, 유아의 정서 인식과 정서 조절은 유아와의 면접을 통하여 알아보았다. 유아의 정서 인식을 알아보기 위해서 Denham과 Couchoud(1990a, b)의 도구를 그림도구로 제작하여 사용하였고, 유아의 정서 조절전략은 Creasey, Ottlinger, DeVico, Murray, Harvey 와 McInnis(1997)의 도구를 수정하여 그림 자료로 제작하였다. 또한 유아의 사회적 능력을 알아보기 위해서는 LaFreniere와 Dumas(1995)의 Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation(SCBE)를 번안하여 사용하였다. 자료 수집을 위하여 어머니에게 유아의 기질 및 어머니의 정서표현성과 정서반응성을 질문지를 통하여 알아보았고, 유아의 사회적 능력은 교사가 평정하였으며, 유아의 정서 표현은 자유선택활동시간동안 관찰을 한 후 녹화하여 분석하였고, 정서 인식과 정서 조절전략을 알아보기 위해서 유아와 개별 면접을 실시하였다. 본 연구결과를 연구문제에 따라 제시하면 다음과 같다. 첫째, 유아의 개인 변인 및 어머니의 정서성과 유아의 정서 발달의 관계를 알아본 결과를 성, 연령, 기질에 따라 제시하면 다음과 같다. 먼저 유아의 개인 변인에 따른 유아의 정서 발달을 살펴보면, 유아의 성에 따라 유아의 정서 표현은 차이가 있었다. 남아와 여아 간에 얼굴 표정으로 정서를 표현하는 것은 기쁨, 슬픔, 분노 표현 모두 차이가 없었지만 기쁨과 분노를 억양 및 비언어적 행동으로 표현하는 것은 여아보다 남아가 더 빈번했다. 유아의 정서 인식은 남아보다 여아가 전반적인 정서 인식뿐만 아니라 정서 인식의 하위 영역인 정서상황 해석하기에서도 높았다. 그러나, 남아와 여아 간에 긍정적, 부정적 정서 조절전략의 사용은 차이가 나타나지 않았다. 연령에 따른 유아의 정서 표현을 살펴보면 기쁨을 얼굴 표정으로 표현하는 것은 연령이 증가할수록 많아졌고 비언어적 행동으로 기쁨을 표현하는 것은 연령이 증가할수록 감소했다. 분노를 억양으로 표현하는 것은 3세 보다 5세가 높은 것으로 나타났다. 유아의 정서 인식은 유아의 연령의 증가와 함께 전반적으로는 높아졌고 주로 3세 유아와 4, 5세 유아 간에 차이가 나타났다. 유아의 연령에 따른 정서 조절전략의 차이는 연령이 증가할수록 긍정적 정서 조절전략의 사용이 증가하고 부정적 정서 조절전략의 사용이 감소하는 것으로 나타났다. 기질과 정서 표현의 관계를 알아본 결과 유아의 기질 특성과 정서 표현은 관계가 나타나지 않았고, 정서 인식과 정서 조절전략과 관계가 있는 것으로 나타났다. 유아의 정서 인식 은 유아의 기질 특성 중 적응성, 활동성, 정서성이 긍정적일수록 높은 수준으로 나타났다. 유아의 정서 조절 전략은 유아의 기질 특성 중 정서성이 긍정적일수록 긍정적 정서 조절전략을 많이 사용하고 부정적 정서 조전전략을 적게 사용했다. 다음으로, 어머니의 정서성과 유아의 정서 발달의 관계를 살펴보면 어머니의 정서표현성은 유아의 정서 조절보다는 정서 표현 및 정서 인식과 관계가 있는 것으로 나타났다. 즉, 어머니의 긍정적 정서 표현성이 높을수록 유아가 억양으로 분노를 표현하는 경향이 높았고, 어머니의 부정적 정서 표현성이 높을수록 유아의 슬픔 표현이 빈번했다. 어머니의 정서 표현성과 유아의 정서 인식의 관계는 어머니의 긍정적 정서 표현성이 높을수록 유아의 전반적인 정서 인식과 정서 조망 수용능력이 낮은 수준으로 나타났다. 어머니의 정서반응성은 유아의 정서 표현이나 정서 인식보다 정서 조절전략과 관계가 있는 것으로 나타났다. 즉, 어머니의 정서반응성이 수용적일수록 유아는 긍정적 정서 조절전략을 많이 사용하고 부정적 정서 조절전략을 적게 사용했다. 둘째, 유아의 정서 발달은 유아의 개인변인과 어머니 정서성의 영향을 받는 것으로 나타났다. 이를 유아의 정서 표현, 정서 인식, 정서 조절전략 순으로 살펴보면 다음과 같다. 먼저, 유아의 기쁨 정서 표현은 유아의 연령이 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났고, 유아의 슬픔 정서 표현은 유아의 정서성과 어머니의 부정적 정서 표현성이 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났으며, 분노 정서 표현은 어머니의 긍정적 정서 표현성이 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다. 다음으로, 유아의 정서 인식은 유아의 연령, 성, 기질 특성 중 적응성 및 어머니의 긍정적 정서표현성이 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다. 마지막으로, 유아의 긍정적 정서 조절전략은 유아의 연령, 기질 특성 중 정서성, 어머니의 정서 반응성이 영향을 미쳤고, 유아의 부정적 정서 조절전략은 유아의 연령 및 어머니의 정서 반응성이 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다. 셋째, 유아의 개인변인 및 어머니의 정서성과 유아의 사회적 능력의 관계는 다음과 같았다. 먼저, 유아의 성에 따른 유아의 사회적 능력은 차이가 없는 것으로 나타났고, 유아의 전반적인 사회적 능력은 3, 4세 유아와 5세 유아 간에 차이가 있는 것으로 나타났고, 하위 영역인 친사회적 행동은 3, 4, 5세 유아 간에 차이가 있는 것으로 나타났다. 또한, 유아의 기질 특성 중 적응성, 활동성은 유아의 친사회적 행동 및 내적 행동 문제, 외적 행동문제와 관계가 있는 것으로 나타났다. 마지막으로, 어머니의 정서표현성과 유아의 사회적 능력 간에는 어떠한 관계도 나타나지 않았지만, 어머니의 정서반응성이 수용적일수록 유아의 친사회적 행동이 많은 것으로 나타났다. 넷째, 유아의 사회적 능력은 개인 변인과 어머니 정서성의 영향을 받는 것으로 나타났다. 먼저, 하위 영역인 친사회적 행동은 연령과 유아의 기질 특성 중 적응성, 어머니의 정서반응성이 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났고, 내적 행동 문제는 유아의 기질 특성 중 적응성이, 외적 행동 문제는 유아의 기질 특성 중 활동성이 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다. 전반적인 유아의 사회적 능력은 유아의 연령이 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다. 다섯째, 유아의 정서 발달과 사회적 능력은 서로 관계가 있는 것으로 나타났다. 먼저, 유아의 정서 표현과 사회적 능력의 관계를 알아본 결과 억양으로 분노를 빈번히 표현하는 유아는 사회적 기술과 정서적 성숙을 보였다. 다음으로 유아의 정서 인식과 사회적 능력의 관계를 알아본 결과, 유아의 정서 인식수준이 높을수록 유아의 사회적 능력이 성숙하고 내적 행동 문제 및 외적 행동 문제가 적었다. 마지막으로, 유아의 정서 조절능력과 사회적 능력의 관계를 알아본 결과 긍정적 정서 조절전략을 많이 사용하는 유아는 친사회적 행동이 높게 나타나고 내적 행동 문제가 적었고, 반대로 부정적 정서 조절전략을 많이 사용하는 유아는 친사회적 행동이 적었고 내적 행동 문제가 많은 것으로 나타났다. 본 연구 결과를 기초로 하여 어머니 및 교사가 유아의 정서 발달 및 사회적 능력을 돕기 위한 방안에 대한 시사점을 제시하였고, 추후 연구를 위한 몇 가지 제언을 하였다.;The purpose of this research is to identify the importance of emotional development in early childhood, age 3 to 5, by examining the relationship between the children's variables such as gender, age, and temperament, as well as their mothers' emotionality, and the emotional development and social competence. In addition, the purpose is to provide effective directions for the mothers and teachers to instruct essential social competence and the variables for a child to be a competent person. The research questions of this study were as follows: 1. Is there any correlation between children's individual variables, their mothers' emotionality and the children's emotional development? 1-1. Is there any correlation between children's individual variables and the children's emotional development? 1-2. Is there any correlation between the mothers' emotionality and the children's emotional development? 2. How do the children's individual variables and their mothers' emotionality exert influence on the children's emotional development? 3. Is there any correlation between children's individual variables, their mothers' emotionality and the children's social competence? 3-1. Is there any correlation between children's individual variables and the children's social competence? 3-2. Is there any correlation between the mothers' emotionality and the children's social competence? 4. How do the children's individual variables and their mothers' emotionality exert influence on the children's social competence? 5. Is there any correlation between children's emotional development and social competence? The participants of this research were 72 children, age of 3 to 5, their mothers and teachers in S-city Jeonnam. Children's temperament was assessed by Infant Temperament Questionnaire(HeeYoung Chun, 1992). mothers' emotional expressivity was rated by Family Emotional Expressiveness Questionnaire(Halberstadt, 1986). mothers' emotional reactivity was measured by Parental Attitude toward Child Expressiveness Scale(Saarni, 1989b). Children's emotional expressions were observed by time sampling, which is the revision of observation scale(Hubbard, 2001) during free activity time at the kindergarten. Children's emotional recognition and emotional regulation were examined by interviewing the children. Scale of Denham and Couchoud(1990a, b) was manufactured into a pictorial instrument, which was used to examine children's emotional recognition. Scale of Creasey, Ottlinger, DeVico, Murray, Harvey, and McInnis(1997) was manufactured into a pictorial instrument, which was used to measure children's strategies for emotional regulation. Children's social competence was assessed by Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation(La Freniere & Dumas, 1995). Children's temperament, mothers' emotional expressivity and emotional reactivity were assessed by a mothers' questionnaire. Children's social competence were evaluated by the teachers. Children's emotional expressions were analyzed by making recordings after observing the children during free activity time. The results of this research according to the subjects are as follows: First, the relationship between children's individual variables, mothers' emotionality and children's emotional development are presented as follows: Children's emotional expressions were distinguished by the children's gender. The boys tend to use intonation and nonverbal behaviors more frequently than the girls. In contrast, the girls showed higher cognition in analyzing the emotional circumstances as well as general emotional recognition. Using strategies for emotional regulation in both positive and negative ways, however, did not show any differences between the boys and the girls. Showing happiness by making face expression ranked higher in the older ages. Expressing happiness by using nonverbal behaviors ranked lower in the older ages. Expressing anger by intonation ranked higher in the age of 5 rather than the age of 3. Children's emotional recognition increased as the age increased, and the more positive strategies for emotional regulation were used as the children's age increased, and the negative strategies were decreased. Although, temperament characteristics did not have any relationship with emotional expression, emotional recognition and the strategies for emotional regulation wes related to the temperament characteristics. Children's emotional recognition ranked higher as the children's adaptability, vitality, and emotionality were more positive. Children with positive emotionality used positive strategies for emotional regulation. mothers' emotional expressivity was related to children's emotional expression and recognition rather than strategies for emotional regulation. Children tend to express anger with intonation as the mothers' expressivity was positive. Children's overall emotional recognition were low as the mothers' positive expressivity was high. mothers' emotional reactivity was related to children's strategies for emotional regulations rather than emotional expression and recognition. Children used more positive strategies for emotional regulation and less negative strategies as the mothers' emotional reactivity was acceptive. Second, children's emotional development was influenced by the children's individual variables and mothers' emotionality. Children's age was related to expression of happiness. Children's expression of sadness was related to children's emotionality and mothers' positive emotional expressivity. Children's emotional recognition was related to children's emotionality and mothers' emotional reactivity. Children's negative strategies for emotional regulation were related to children's age and mothers' emotional reactivity. Third, relations between children's individual variables, mothers' emotionality, and children's social competence were as follow: There were no gender differences in social competence. Differences appeared between 3 and 4 year-old children and 5-year-old children. Prosocial behavior, a lower ranking domain, showed differences between 3, 4, and 5 year-old children. Children's adaptability and activity were related to children's prosocial behavior and internal behavioral problems, and external problems. Although, children's social competence was not influenced by mothers' emotional expressivity, children's prosocial behavior appeared when mothers' emotional reactivity was positive. Fourth, children's social competence was influenced by individual variables and mothers' emotionality. Prosocial behavior, a lower ranking domain, was influenced by children's adaptability and mothers' emotional reactivity. Children's internal behavioral problems were influenced by adaptability. In contrast, external behavioral problems were influenced by activity. Overall, children's social competence was influenced by children's age. Finally, children's emotional development was related to social competence. Children who expressed anger by intonation showed social competence and emotional maturity. Children with a high emotional recognition standard showed more mature social competence, and had less internal and external behavioral problems. Children who used positive strategies for emotional regulation had higher prosocial behaviors with less internal emotional problems. In contrast, children with negative strategies for emotional regulation had lower prosocial behaviors with more internal behavioral problems.The purpose of this research is to identify the importance of emotional development in early childhood, age 3 to 5, by examining the relationship between the children's variables such as gender, age, and temperament, as well as their mothers' emotionality, and the emotional development and social competence. In addition, the purpose is to provide effective directions for the mothers and teachers to instruct essential social competence and the variables for a child to be a competent person. The research questions of this study were as follows: 1. Is there any correlation between children's individual variables, their mothers' emotionality and the children's emotional development? 1-1. Is there any correlation between children's individual variables and the children's emotional development? 1-2. Is there any correlation between the mothers' emotionality and the children's emotional development? 2. How do the children's individual variables and their mothers' emotionality exert influence on the children's emotional development? 3. Is there any correlation between children's individual variables, their mothers' emotionality and the children's social competence? 3-1. Is there any correlation between children's individual variables and the children's social competence? 3-2. Is there any correlation between the mothers' emotionality and the children's social competence? 4. How do the children's individual variables and their mothers' emotionality exert influence on the children's social competence? 5. Is there any correlation between children's emotional development and social competence? The participants of this research were 72 children, age of 3 to 5, their mothers and teachers in S-city Jeonnam. Children's temperament was assessed by Infant Temperament Questionnaire(HeeYoung Chun, 1992). mothers' emotional expressivity was rated by Family Emotional Expressiveness Questionnaire(Halberstadt, 1986). mothers' emotional reactivity was measured by Parental Attitude toward Child Expressiveness Scale(Saarni, 1989b). Children's emotional expressions were observed by time sampling, which is the revision of observation scale(Hubbard, 2001) during free activity time at the kindergarten. Children's emotional recognition and emotional regulation were examined by interviewing the children. Scale of Denham and Couchoud(1990a, b) was manufactured into a pictorial instrument, which was used to examine children's emotional recognition. Scale of Creasey, Ottlinger, DeVico, Murray, Harvey, and McInnis(1997) was manufactured into a pictorial instrument, which was used to measure children's strategies for emotional regulation. Children's social competence was assessed by Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation(La Freniere & Dumas, 1995). Children's temperament, mothers' emotional expressivity and emotional reactivity were assessed by a mothers' questionnaire. Children's social competence were evaluated by the teachers. Children's emotional expressions were analyzed by making recordings after observing the children during free activity time. The results of this research according to the subjects are as follows: First, the relationship between children's individual variables, mothers' emotionality and children's emotional development are presented as follows: Children's emotional expressions were distinguished by the children's gender. The boys tend to use intonation and nonverbal behaviors more frequently than the girls. In contrast, the girls showed higher cognition in analyzing the emotional circumstances as well as general emotional recognition. Using strategies for emotional regulation in both positive and negative ways, however, did not show any differences between the boys and the girls. Showing happiness by making face expression ranked higher in the older ages. Expressing happiness by using nonverbal behaviors ranked lower in the older ages. Expressing anger by intonation ranked higher in the age of 5 rather than the age of 3. Children's emotional recognition increased as the age increased, and the more positive strategies for emotional regulation were used as the children's age increased, and the negative strategies were decreased. Although, temperament characteristics did not have any relationship with emotional expression, emotional recognition and the strategies for emotional regulation wes related to the temperament characteristics. Children's emotional recognition ranked higher as the children's adaptability, vitality, and emotionality were more positive. Children with positive emotionality used positive strategies for emotional regulation. mothers' emotional expressivity was related to children's emotional expression and recognition rather than strategies for emotional regulation. Children tend to express anger with intonation as the mothers' expressivity was positive. Children's overall emotional recognition were low as the mothers' positive expressivity was high. mothers' emotional reactivity was related to children's strategies for emotional regulations rather than emotional expression and recognition. Children used more positive strategies for emotional regulation and less negative strategies as the mothers' emotional reactivity was acceptive. Second, children's emotional development was influenced by the children's individual variables and mothers' emotionality. Children's age was related to expression of happiness. Children's expression of sadness was related to children's emotionality and mothers' positive emotional expressivity. Children's emotional recognition was related to children's emotionality and mothers' emotional reactivity. Children's negative strategies for emotional regulation were related to children's age and mothers' emotional reactivity. Third, relations between children's individual variables, mothers' emotionality, and children's social competence were as follow: There were no gender differences in social competence. Differences appeared between 3 and 4 year-old children and 5-year-old children. Prosocial behavior, a lower ranking domain, showed differences between 3, 4, and 5 year-old children. Children's adaptability and activity were related to children's prosocial behavior and internal behavioral problems, and external problems. Although, children's social competence was not influenced by mothers' emotional expressivity, children's prosocial behavior appeared when mothers' emotional reactivity was positive. Fourth, children's social competence was influenced by individual variables and mothers' emotionality. Prosocial behavior, a lower ranking domain, was influenced by children's adaptability and mothers' emotional reactivity. Children's internal behavioral problems were influenced by adaptability. In contrast, external behavioral problems were influenced by activity. Overall, children's social competence was influenced by children's age. Finally, children's emotional development was related to social competence. Children who expressed anger by intonation showed social competence and emotional maturity. Children with a high emotional recognition standard showed more mature social competence, and had less internal and external behavioral problems. Children who used positive strategies for emotional regulation had higher prosocial behaviors with less internal emotional problems. In contrast, children with negative strategies for emotional regulation had lower prosocial behaviors with more internal behavioral problems.
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