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Aaron Copland의 연가곡 "Twelve Poems of Emily Dickinson"의 시와 음악에 관한 연구

Aaron Copland의 연가곡 "Twelve Poems of Emily Dickinson"의 시와 음악에 관한 연구
Other Titles
A Study on "Twelve Poems of Emily Dickinson" By Aaron Copland
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대학원 음악학부
이화여자대학교 대학원
아론 코플랜드(Aaron Copland, 1900-1990)는 미국 현대 음악의 아버지로, 미국 음악사에 있어 포스터(Stephan Foster, 1826-1864)와 아이브스(Charles Ives, 1874-1954)에 이어 20세기 미국 음악계를 주도한 대표적인 작곡가이다. 그는 20세기에 등장한 새로운 시도와 실험들, 즉 재즈(Jazz)와 스트라빈스키(Stravinsky)풍의 음악기법, 대중적인 실용음악, 민속적 음악, 12음 기법과 음렬주의 등 다양한 작곡기법을 그의 음악 전반에 사용하여 가장 미국적이고 독자적인 작품세계를 구축한 작곡가이다. 코플랜드는 미국 음악의 질과 가치를 높은 수준으로 끌어 올렸고, 미국적인 개성을 부각시켜 자신의 음악세계를 구축하였다. 또한 20세기 음악에 대한 활발한 저서활동과 강의를 통해 미국의 현대음악에 중요한 영향을 끼쳤을 뿐만 아니라 피아니스트와 지휘자로도 뛰어난 활동을 하였다. <에밀리 디킨슨에 의한 12개의 가곡(Twelve Poems of Emily Dickinson)>은 아론 코플랜드가 미국 최고의 여류시인인 에밀리 디킨슨(Emily Dickinson, 1830-1886)의 12개의 시에 곡을 붙인 것으로, 그 시들은 자연, 삶, 죽음, 그리고 영원 등을 주제로 삼고 있다. 본 논문은 코플랜드의 38개의 예술가곡 중 유일한 연가곡인 <에밀리 디킨슨에 의한 12개의 가곡>을 연구, 분석한 것이다. 먼저 시와 음악을 이해하기 위해 에밀리 디킨슨의 생애와 문학적 특성을, 그리고 코플랜드의 생애와 음악적 경향을 알아보았고, 음악과 시의 관계를 이해하기 위하여 12개의 시를 연구하였다. 그 후 12곡의 음악적 구조와 가사와 연관되는 음악적 특징을 살펴봄으로서, 이를 바탕으로 <에밀리 디킨슨에 의한 12개의 가곡>을 더욱 깊이 이해하는데 도움이 되게 하였다.;Aaron Copland (1900-1990), greatly distinguished and exceptionally gifted American composer, is one of the most representative composers who had much influence on the contemporary American music through a lot of lectures and works of 20th century music. Following Stephan Foster (1826-1864) and Charles Ives (1874-1954), he has raised the level and quality of the music in America greatly and established his own musical style that expresses the characteristics of American musical style so well. He was a progressive composer so that he accommodated a variety of compositional techniques such as Jazz, Stravinsky's musical style, Gebrauchmusik, folk music, twelve tone technique and serialism. A. Copland composed in different genres such as piano, ballet, vocal music and even movie sound track. There are 38 art songs among his works. These songs show the characteristics of contemporary music in America, while at the same time he has never lost his unique musical characteristics while composing various styles of music. Especially the "Twelve Poems of Emily Dickinson" composed during 1949-1950 is the most outstanding vocal piece and the only song cycle of Copland composed. They are set to the poems of Emily Dickinson (1830-1886) whose poems bridge to modern American poetry, a 19th century American poetess. The poems center aboutno single theme, but they treat of subject matter particularly close to Miss Dickinson: nature, love, death, life and eternity. Copland utilizes different musical characteristics according to the nature of the poems. There are well expressed his various musical styles and techniquesin this song cycle. Each 12 songs are dedicated to his friends. The melodies as well as texts of the twelve poems have been analyzed respectively in order to survey Emily Dickinson's literature and Aaron Copland's music and to understanding the relationships of her poems and his melodies. In its structure, this song cycle is comprised of songs mainly showing a distinct form by transforming and progressing motives through imitative counterpoint, which shows Neo-classical influence. The musical elements are very well corresponding to the characteristic intonation and accent of English text. In this thesis, this researcher tries to examine the position of musical history characteristic and the musical feature through the study on the music of Copland's songs which is related to the word of a song's meaning (text), melody and harmony. This song cycle follows strictly the nature poetic accent and intonation. Syllabics and recitative styles are often found with a frequent repetition of motifs in the melody. Whole tone scale, chromatic scale and 9th, 10th, 11th interval are used for natural melody. There are wide-leap melodies in this song cycle. The harmony of this song cycle reveals the characters of American music owing to its picturesque harmony and Jazz technique. And in rhythm, he shows some elements of American musical style through such things as syncopation, jazz, polyrhythm and changing meters. Voice and accompaniment part are played interactively with equal emphasis, and diverse measures are employed. Copland has written numerous his own indications in the score, that signify the unique intention of his composition. Especially, in this song cycle, accompaniment shows the feature of song of Copland well by showing the meaning of poem all the more, the author examined the roles that accompaniment should play in the voice part of song by concentrating energy on such point through the analysis of contents of poem.
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