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윤이상의 『Interludium A』에 관한 연구

윤이상의 『Interludium A』에 관한 연구
Other Titles
A Study of the 『Interludium A』 by Isang Yun
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대학원 음악학부
윤이상(1917~1995)은 20세기 현대음악에 큰 영향을 끼친 자랑스러운 한국인 작곡가로 독일에서 주로 활동하면서 5곡의 교향곡을 비롯해 150여 곡의 오케스트라를 위한 작품을 남겼다. 그 중 피아노 솔로를 위한 곡은 『피아노를 위한 5개의 소품-Fünf Stücke für Klavier(1958)』과 『간주곡 A-Interludium A(1982)』의 두 곡이 있다. 그는 한국의 전통음악에 근간을 두고 이를 바탕으로 서양의 작곡기법을 결부시켜 그만의 독자적인 방법을 모색했다. 『Interludium A』 역시 한국의 전통음악과 서양의 기법을 융합해 그만의 독자적인 작곡기법을 보이는 대표적인 곡이다. 이 곡에서 한국음악의 영향을 받은 요소는 주요음기법(Haupttontechnik)과 장식음기법을 들 수 있다. 특히 장식음 기법은 우리음악의 시김새나 농현기법을 염두해 두고 작곡된 기법으로 트릴, 트레몰로, 전타음 등의 장식음을 통해 주요음이 더욱 생동화되고 긴장감이 유지되도록 도와준다. 본 연구의 목적은 윤이상의 작품에 나타난 작품세계에서 동양적인 가치관이 서구의 작곡기법과 결합하여 어떻게 융해되었는가를 살펴보고 이를 바탕으로 20세기 유용한 분석이론인 집합이론(Pitch-Class Set)에 의한 분석을 통해 곡의 성격을 규명하려 한다. 또한 이 곡은 기교적으로나 음악적으로 어렵고 까다로워서 연구기회를 한층 더 감소시키고 있다. 이러한 시점에서 이 곡을 직접 연주해 본 연주자로서 그의 작품을 시기별로 정리한 후 분석을 통해 그의 작곡기법이 어떻게 사용되고 있는지 알아본 후 연주에 대한 제언을 통해 이 작품에 대한 폭넓은 이해와 관심으로 이 곡을 연주하는 분들에게 많은 도움이 되길 바란다.; Isang Yun(1917~1995) was one of the great Korean composer who was engaged in musical activities in Germany. He established his own unique music style with the traditional korean music character and modern western composing techniques. The music of Yun is influenced by Zwölftonmusik, taoism and his thoughts in categories like 'Yin and Yang'. He composed more than 150 pieces of various genre including Orchestral, Chamber, solo instrumental, choral and Opera. In Yun's total works, only two pieces are composed for piano solo. One is 『5 Stücke für Klavier』(1958) and the other is 『Interludium A』(1982). He influenced by Schönberg when Yun went to europe. Therefore 『5 Stücke für Klavier』 is based on Zwölftonmusik and 『Interludium A』 is composed as a single morement which lasts for about 11 minutes. In 『Interludium A』, his composing manner blends eastern and western elements into a unique style. Inspired by Debussy and Ravel, Yun used main composition techniques 『Interludium A』 : Klangfarbenkomposition, Haupttontechnik, Hauptklangtechnik, trill, Glissando, Vibrato, etc. trill, Glissando, Vibrato, etc. were influenced by korean traditional music. Music of the East has a tone in the center. Before and after the tone, surrounding tones coexist. They are a unit for music. Main tones become vivid and tense with surrounding tones such as trill or tremolo. In 『Interludium A』 techniques using trills and tremolos are used many times, and Haupttontechnik and Klangfarbenkomposition are used as well. Like other words, 『Interludium A』 is influenced by Taoism and shows the 'movement in stillness' philosophy. In other words, melody, harmony, rhythm, and the structure of the music express a distinctive contrast of Yin and Yang. For instance, in interval second, static and dynamic forms of the main tone A show contrast but are in harmony at the same time. As for harmonic structure, using chords and dischords together like a combination of interval second and fourth and that of interval third and fourth was also influenced by Taoism. The Pitch-Class set (PCS) theory of Allen Forte is useful in analyzing modern music, which was hard ti explain with traditional theory in the 20th century. Isang Yun's work seemed to be composed with no harmonic rules. However, every code used in the work was explained by PCS theory. Isang Yun used Trichords and tetrachords very frequently in his work. As for Trichords, every kind of Trichord shown in PCS was used. PCS [0,1,2] of G#, A, B which are composed of chromatic relationships are the main musical materials. In particular, PCS [0,3,7], [0,2,5], [0,1,4], [0,1,5], [0,1,6], [0,2,5,7], [0,1,5,8], and [0,2,5,8] were used many times. Isang Yun did not use twelve tone techniques strictly but used more developed techniques by applying them. In conclusion, this work is a typical example of Yun's unique composition showing mixed styles of Korean traditional and western music. Isang Yun as a Korea-born musician who influenced the contemporary western music in the 20th century by interweaving Korean traditional culture and contemporary Western music. Therefore, I hope that Isang Yun's reputation should be regained and this paper can help many people play his work.
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