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초등학생의 성격특성 및 불안과 학교안전사고 발생의 관계

Title
초등학생의 성격특성 및 불안과 학교안전사고 발생의 관계
Other Titles
The Relationship between Elementary Students' Personality Characteristics, Anxiety, and the occurrence of School Safety Accidents
Authors
양혜리
Issue Date
2008
Department/Major
임상보건과학대학원 임상보건학과임상간호학전공
Publisher
이화여자대학교 임상보건과학대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
초등학교 시기의 아동은 발달특성상 호기심이 많고, 신체적 성장이 매우 빠르고 활동적이며, 주의력이나 안전에 대한 판단력이 낮고 새로운 것을 알고 싶어 하는 욕구가 강하며 신체적 기능의 미성숙으로 위험 상황에 대처하는 능력이 부족하여 안전사고 발생 확률이 매우 높다. 또한 아동은 새로운 세계에 대한 흥미와 관심도가 높아서 충동적인 행동을 할 수 있다. 본 연구에서는 대상자의 고유한 성격특성과 불안 상태와 학교안전사고 발생과의 상관관계를 분석하여 학교안전교육에 대한 기초자료를 제공함으로서 학교안전교육의 프로그램 계획 및 개발에 기초자료를 제공하고자 함을 목적으로 한다. 본 연구의 대상자는 서울시 초등학교 4개 학교 5~6학년 학생 1,035명을 편의표출 하였다. 자료 수집은 성격특성 측정 도구, 불안 측정 도구, 학교안전사고 측정 도구를 사용, 자기기입식 설문지를 이용하여 2008년 4월 16일부터 2008년 4월 30일까지 하였다. 수집한 자료는 SPSS Win 12.0 통계프로그램을 사용하여 빈도, 백분율, 평균과 표준편차, χ²검정, t-test, Pearson Correlation을 이용하여 분석하였다. 본 연구의 결과는 다음과 같다. 1. 대상자의 성격특성 평균은 강인성의 경우 13점 만점에 4.74점이고, 외향성은 15점 만점에 11.53점, 정서성은 18점 만점에 5.86점, 허위성은 24점 만점에 14.11점으로 비교적 외향성이 강한 것으로 나타났다. 대상자의 불안 평균은 28점 만점에 10.45점으로 불안 수준은 낮은 편이었다. 2. 학년별로는 5학년 학생이 23.9%로 6학년 학생 16.4%에 비해 학교안전사고 경험이 많았다(P=.003). 대상자의 성격특성, 불안과 학교안전사고와의 상관관계를 분석한 결과 성격특성 중 강인성과 학교안전사고 횟수(r=.092, p=.003)와 외향성과 학교안전사고 횟수(r=.065, p=.037) 간의 약하지만 유의한 정적 상관관계를 보이는 것으로 나타났다. 3. 학교안전사고를 경험한 아동은 20.0%이었다. 사고 부위는 다리와 발 부위가 54.1%로 많았고, 사고 원인은 넘어져서 다치는 비율이 40.8%, 사고 유형은 타박상으로 멍든 비율이 39.3%이었다. 사고원인이 된 사물은 체육시설이나 놀이기구 등 27.4%, 사고원인 제공자를 학생자신이라고 한 응답이 67.9%이었다. 사고 장소는 운동장에서 31.4%, 대상자의 26.7%가 친구와 장난하다가 다쳤으며, 사고 후 대처 행동으로는 45.1%가 보건교사를 찾아가서 관리를 받았다. 이상의 연구 결과를 보면, 성격특성이 공격적이고 정서적으로 냉정한 강인성과 불안이 높은 학생의 학교안전사고 경험이 상대적으로 많았으며, 특히 여학생의 경우 강인성과 불안이 높은 학생이 학교안전사고의 경험이 많았다. 따라서 학교안전사고를 줄이고 안전교육의 효과를 높이기 위해서는 안전사고 발생률이 높은 아동을 위험집단으로 분류하여, 대상자에게 체계적인 안전교육을 주기적으로 실시하고, 학교안전사고를 미연에 방지하기 위해서 보건교사가 예방교육과 함께 대상자 간호중재로 관리를 해야 할 것으로 사료된다. 이상의 결론에 근거하여 다음과 같은 제언을 하고자 한다. 1. 대상자의 성격특성에 따라 학교안전교육 방법을 다르게 할 것을 제언한다. 2. 학교안전사고와 관련된 추후 영향 요인을 밝히는 지속적인 연구를 제언한다. 3. 초등학생의 학교안전사고 측정 도구의 표준화 작업을 제언한다.;Primary school-aged children tend to be more curious, as this curiosity is part of this developmental stage. They are also active and grow at a fast rate compared to any other stage of human life. Their ability to determine what is safe and what is not is relatively low, and because of their great interest in almost everything as well as their functional physical immaturity, they are prone to frequent accidents owing to their lack of ability to deal with such accidents. Moreover, children of this age are often more curious and show a greater interest in the world and the environment around them; and as a result they tend to act more impulsively. This research has used measurements of children's personality characteristics, anxiety level, and school safety accidents to understand the severity of safety accidents. In doing so, it aims to function as a source of information for future safety accident education development programs or safety education. In this study, a convenient sampling method was used at four elementary schools based in Seoul. One thousand and thirty-five students participated in the study from April 16 to April 30, 2008. The questionnaires administered consisted of Korean Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, The Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale, School Safety Accident and the students had filled out the questionnaires by themselves. The collected data were analyzed with SPSS Win 12.0 statistics program, which was used to calculate the frequencies, percentages, χ² test values, t-test values, and Pearson's correlations of the variables. The major findings of this study were as follows: 1. With regard to the average score of the subjects’ personality characteristics indicating tenacity was 4.74 out of 13, while that of extraversion was 11.53 out of 15. The score for emotionality was 5.86 out of 18 and that for being humbug was 14.11 out of 24. On comparing the data, extraversion was found to be strongly prevalent among the children. The score pertaining to the children’s anxiety level was, on average,10.45 out of 28, depicting its relatively low level. 2. Grade wise, 119 fifth grade students (23.9%) had experienced more school safety accidents than 88 sixth grade students (16.4%), which is statistically significant (p = .003). On analyzing the relationship between children’s personality characteristics and anxiety level, tenacity (with r = .092 and p = .003) and extraversion (with r = .065, and p = .037) were found to have a weak, yet significantly positive relationship with the number of school safety accidents. 3. Two hundred and seven students (20.0%) had experienced school safety accidents where the most frequent injuries were on the legs and feet (54.1%). The most prevalent causes of injuries were falls (40.8%), while the type of injury that resulted after falling or impact (39.3%) was bruising. The number of accidents that occurred because of physical education or playground equipment was 27.4%. Furthermore, 67.9% of the students responded that they themselves were responsible for the accident and 31.4% of the students had experienced accidents on the school grounds. The percentage of students who were injured while playing with their friends was 26.7%, and 45.1% of the students responded that they went to the school medical clinic for the treatment of their injuries. After examining the results of the investigation, it can be concluded that students who show aggression, emotional coldness, tenacity, and a high level of anxiety experienced more school safety accidents; particularly in the case of female students, students with high tenacity and anxiety levels often experienced more such accidents. Therefore, in order to increase the effectiveness of school safety education and reduce the number of school safety accidents, school safety education must be focused on school safety education risk groups and be conducted periodically, and to prevent such accidents, prevention and treatment must carefully and continuously be carried out in clinics with great emphasis. On the basis of the results of the research, the following are a few suggestions: 1. School safety education must be flexible and should be based on student's personality. 2. In relation to school safety accidents, continuous research regarding the post-effect causes of these accidents is imperative. 3. Measurement tools used to estimate elementary school safety accidents must undergo standardization.
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