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李朝中期의 肖像畵의 硏究

Title
李朝中期의 肖像畵의 硏究
Other Titles
(The) Study of portraits in midole terms Lee of Dynasty
Authors
朴鍾美.
Issue Date
1981
Department/Major
교육대학원 미술교육전공
Keywords
이조중기초상화조선시대
Publisher
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
So called portrait is a part of figure-painting among paintings and there are abundant materials and the remaining records are accurate in the painting history of Korean history. With the exception of the end of Korea Dynasty, most of the historical records for the portrait has been recorded in the authentic records of Lee Dynasty and dairy of SUNGJUNGWON and the matter of referred for the fact of hero is also feature of the portrait of Lee Dynasty. The portrait of Lee Dynasty can be divided into previous, middle and latter term, the style and techniques of the portrait previous term is based on the considerable ground on the portrait of KORYO. Then the portrait of end part of previous terms has mostly changed to developed the portrait from the portrait of previous terms and thereby developed a portrait stage of middle terms of Lee Dynasty which was the highest stage of prosperity of portrait. This stage was the most remarkable one in the history of Korean portrait. One of the reason made development in this period might say sense of power among the YANGBAN people of Lee Dynasty that has been shown by the enforcement of confucianism. Most of the portrait has been enshrined in the lecture-halls or shrines as a religious purpose under the ground of ruling society of Confucianism and the government ordered to paint portrait to the library mobilizing the meritorious retainers or high ranking officers of who has virtue, therefore the portrait of this stage have further progressed since there was a powerful customs from preceding generations to granted. In addition, the portrait was popular in the recognition of birth, particularly in the middle of Lee Dynasty every one used to kept portraits in their possession as a memory if they got government post over grade of "DANG SANG KWAN" and this kind of custom believed mentioned Korean portrait has been most prosperous in the middle of Lee Dynasty. Judging from this fact of techniques of portrait, most of them have changed and developed in painting techniques of previous terms of CHOSUN. They applied the painting method eight-ninth in the right face, but on the other hand, the works in the middle terms of CHOSUN have changed to the method eight-ninth in the left face. Also of seated figures could be seen with a half-upper-figure and seated figure of entire body on the chair in the middle terms instead of there were many of the upper-half figures in the end of KORYO Dynasty and first part of Lee Dynasty. Speaking of hats, many of them used to wear BOK KUN (幅巾) or YUKEUN (儒帽) in the end part of KORYO Dynasty and first part of CHOSUN, on the other hand they used to wear SAMO (紗帽). And regarding clothing, they used to wear SIMEI (深衣) in the first part of CHOSUN, but mostly used official uniform, another words confucian uniform in the middle part of CHOSUN. Regarding double clothing, it was an expression of simple line with a light coloring in the first part but the light and dark coloring could be seen after the middle part. Later on it was changed as a technique of showing the line of chinese ink to Chinese ink and line of shadow. The fact we have to describe particularity in this stage is most of portrait used painted on the silk or paper, and from this period it was a new techniques to make real materials used upon cut on the crown or seatting mat(straw mat) and the typical work is the portrait of CHUNG, CHWI-RYANG. There was a great change in the disposition and painting method on the face of portrait in the middle terms of CHOSUN and it was a canon of painting for shadow and light in the western painting which seems one of the same status shown in general paintings. It was this term when the western canon of painting has been shown in general painting, it was interesting fact that the painting has been handled clairvoyance of shadow and light in the portrait paintings. Particularly self-portrait of KANG, SE-HWANG the clairvoyance of shadow and light and expression of eye-sight on the expressions of face considered effected much of western painting. The writer looked about to study firstly from the historical point of view, as contents stated roughly two(2) chapters for the portraits of Middle terms of Lee Dynasty and the chapter 2. I have divided into the feature, techniques and working method and working elements of portraits as well. In order to look about the particular feature of portraits which was shown individually, the treatise of artist was set up separately and studied the expression and transfiguration process in accordance with the change of era.;肖像畵란 繪畵 중 人物畵에 속하는 한 部分으로서 韓國繪畵史上 가장 資料가 豊富하고 남아있는 記錄이 正確하다. 高麗以前을 除外하고는 大部分의 肖像畵에 대한 歷史的 記錄이 「李朝實錄」과 「承政院日記」등에 收錄되어 主人公에 대한 事實을 깊이 參考할 수 있는 것도 李朝初 肖像畵의 한 特徵이라고 할 수 있다. 李朝의 肖像畵는 前記와 中期 後期로 나눌 수 있는데 前記의 肖像畵는 樣式과 技法이 高麗의 肖像畵에 많이 緣由하고 있으며 中期以後의 肖像畵는 前期의 肖像畵를 變化 發展하여 肖像畵 全盛期인 李朝中期의 肖像畵時代를 展開하여 이 時代의 肖像畵야말로 韓國肖像畵 史上 가장 刮目할만 하다. 이 時期에 肖像畵가 이토록 發達한 原因 중에 하나는 儒敎의 盛行으로 나타난 李朝 兩班들의 權威意識이라고 할 수 있다. 대개의 肖像畵는 儒敎의 支配的인 社會바람 속에 享祀用으로 書院이나 祠院에 奉安되었고 또 國家에서는 功臣이나 德이 있는 高官들을 圖畵書에 命하여 肖像畵를 그리도록 하고 下賜하는 權威的 遺習이 있었음으로 이 時期의 肖像畵는 더욱 發達하였다. 또 家門意識으로 肖像畵가 盛行하였는데 특히 李朝中期에는 堂上官 이상의 벼슬을 하면 누구나 肖像畵를 製作하여 記念으로 간직하였으며 이와 같은 일을 後孫들에게 鑑戒로 삼았다. 위와 같은 社會的 要因에 의하여 韓國肖像畵는 李朝中期에 가장 盛行하였다. 이 時期의 肖像畵의 技法을 살펴보면 大部分이 朝鮮朝前期 肖像畵 技法을 變化 發展하여 顔面의 方向이 右顔八·九分畵法을 使用하는데 比하여 朝鮮中期의 作品은 左顔八·九分畵法으로 變化되었으며 取勢에 있어서는 高麗末이나 李朝初에는 上半身像이 많았는데 비하여 中期에는 半身上과 全身 座像이 많이 보인다. 모자에 있어서는 高麗末과 朝鮮初에는 幅巾이나 儒巾을 많이 쓴데 비하여 中期에는 紗帽를 많이 쓰고 있다. 그리고 衣服에 있어서도 高麗나 朝鮮初에는 단순한 深衣를 입는데 비하여 朝鮮中期에는 官服 즉 儒服을 많이 着用하였으며 衣褶에 있어서는 初期에는 淡彩로서 간단한 線의 表現이었으나 中期以後부터는 淡彩와 濃彩가 모두 보이며 線의 表現도 간단한 墨線에서 墨線과 陰影線이 모두 보이는 技法으로 변화되고 있다. 또 이 時期에 特記할만한 사실은 從來의 大部分의 肖像畵가 全體를 비단이나 종이 위에 그림으로 그려졌는데 이 時期부터 冠이나 安席(돗자리)이 實際의 物質을 使用하여 오려 붙혀서 製作되었음은 새로운 肖像畵 製作의 技法이었는데 그 代表的인 作品이 鄭 휘량의 肖像畵이다. 朝鮮中期의 肖像畵는 顔面의 處理와 畵法에 있어서도 상당한 변화가 있었는데 그것은 一般繪畵에서 나타나는 特性과 꼭같은 現象의 하나로 보이는 西洋畵의 陰陽畵法이다. 一般繪畵에서 西洋畵法이 나타난 것도 바로 이 時期였는데 肖像畵에 있어서도 陰陽透視를 洋畵法으로 處理되고 있음은 매우 興味있는 일이다. 특히 姜 世晃의 初本 自畵像은 顔面의 表現과 衣褶에 있어서 陰影의 透視와 視覺的 表現의 洋畵의 影響이 매우 많다. 筆者는 위와 같은 內容으로 本論을 展開하여 李朝 中期의 肖像畵를 硏究하는데 크게 두 章으로 나누며, 第一章은 우선 歷史的인 觀點으로 살펴보았으며 第二章은 中期肖像畵의 特色과 技法 製作方法 등으로 나누었다. 아울러 肖像畵製作 要因 등을 살펴보았으며 個別的으로 나타난 肖像畵의 特質을 살펴보기 위하여 作家論을 따로 設定하여 時代變遷에 따른 表現과 變貌過程을 살펴보았다.
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