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유아원 과학교육 프로그램에 관한 연구

Title
유아원 과학교육 프로그램에 관한 연구
Other Titles
(A) Study on science education program in kindergarten
Authors
장윤정.
Issue Date
1982
Department/Major
교육대학원 교육학전공유아교육분야
Keywords
유아원과학교육교육프로그램
Publisher
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
科學의 發展이 國家의 國力과 國際的인 地位를 決定하는 重要한 要因이 되고 있음을 認識한 후부터 世界 各國에서는 科學敎育 改善과 科學敎育을 振興시키기 위한 運動이 活潑히 展開되고 있다. 特히 早期敎育의 重要性이 强調되면서 探究心과 好奇心이 많은 幼兒期의 科學敎育 必要性 認識이 높아졌고 이에 따른 多樣한 科學敎育 프로그램의 開發과 硏究가 課題로 登場하고 있다. 이에 本 硏究는 우리나라 幼稚園의 科學敎育의 實際的運營을 調査하고 分析하여 우리가 當面하고 있는 科學敎育의 問題解決과 우리實情에 알맞은 多樣한 科學敎育 프로그램의 開發에 必要한 基礎資料를 提供하는데 그 目的이 있다. 硏究方法은 文獻硏究와 調査硏究를 竝行하였다. 硏究對象은 서울市內 幼稚園 320곳의 敎師 320名을 對象으로 選定하여 調査를 實施하였다. 그 중 質問紙가 回收된 210名(62.2%)을 對象으로 分析하였고 資料處理는 百分率과 χ^(2)檢證法(5% 水準에서 有意度檢證)을 使用하였다. 硏究結果 및 論議는 다음과 같다. 1. 幼兒期 科學敎育의 重要度는 높게 認識되어 있으나 많은 敎師들이 科學敎育에 關한 專門知識과 硏修機會의 不足을 느끼고 있다. 따라서 科學敎育에 關한 硏修, 專門書籍 普及, 세미나 等 敎師의 科學敎育 知識習得을 위한 機會가 더 많이 提供되어야 할 것이다. 2. 科學敎育 計劃은 兒童의 興味와 關心에 따른 計劃보다는 敎師가 選定한 內容과 方法에 따라 兒童이 活用하도록 하고 있다. 또한 敎育計劃 樹立에 있어서 園長의 경우는 園長이 計劃하는 것으로 應答하였고 敎師의 경우는 敎師가 科學敎育을 樹立하는 것으로 敎育計劃의 二元化現象을 볼 수 있다. 科學敎育 計劃에 있어 敎育者間의 뚜렷한 役割 分擔과 兒童의 要求가 反影될 수 있도록 연구되어져야 하겠다. 3. 새로운 科學敎育 方法을 硏究하여 多樣한 科學敎育 프로그램이 開發되어야 하겠다. 現在 가장 많이 實施하고 있는 것은 時間, 空間, 分類, 測定等의 새로운 科學的 槪念보다는 自然現象을 中心으로 하는 傳統的인 基礎槪念 科學敎育 方法이 많이 사용되고 있는 實情이다. 4. 敎師들이 어린이의 興味를 誘發시키는 環境構成에는 努力을 기울이지 않고 있다. 過半數 이상의 幼稚園이 科學코너를 設置하지 않고 있으며 과학놀이를 위한 器具가 相當히 不足한 現象이다. 經費가 들지 않는 科學敎材의 開發과 이에 對한 啓蒙이 時急히 要請된다. 5. 兒童의 思考力과 探究력에 基礎한 科學敎材用의 敎具開發이 專門的으로 硏究되어져야 할 것이다. 6. 經費問題가 幼稚園에서 實際的 觀察이나 見學을 通한 科學敎育을 實施할 수 없는 主要 要因으로 나타났다. 앞으로 이 問題를 解決하기 위한 具體的인 재정적 要因이 分析되어 現場敎育을 中心으로 하는 質높은 科學敎育이 計劃되어야 할 것이다.;As the development of science is recognized to play a vital role in determining national strength and international status, activities toward the improvement and promotion of science education is being undertaken actively around the world. Especially as the importance of early childhood education is stressed, the necessity of science education for the children possesing abundant searching and curious nature has received high perception and consequently the development and study of various science education program have become the major concern. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate and analyse the actual process of science education of Korean kindergarten and to endeavour for the solution of the problems existing in such education and to provide with the research data for the development of various scientific programes. In this regards, the study has been conducted through the pertinent literatures and the field observation. The subjects of this study are three-hundred-twenty teachers chosen from 320 different kindergartens in Seoul. Return rate of the questionare is 62.2 percents, 201 subjects. These are processed and analyzed by use of statistical techniques, frequency (percent) and significant test (X^(2)). The Result of the study and discussions are as follows: 1. The importance of science education in the early childhood stage is a highly perceived fact. However, majority of educators acknowledge insufficiency in their capabilities pertaining to professional knowledge and the lack of opportunity on science training. Therefore, the training for science education to argument technical references, distribution of specific teaching materials, seminars and other chances for the educators to obtain professional scientific knowledge should be taken into consideration. 2. Science education program were established based on the application and the method selected by the educators rather than the interest of the children. The director of a kindergarten responded that she herself establish educational programmes while the teachers perpare their own programmes. This may well be explained that separate efforts by two parties overlapping at times and thereby causing diversion of the objects of education. In the science education, it is recommended that the clear division of delegated responsibility between the educators and childrens needs could be harmonized. 3. Various science education programmes should be developed through the study of new science educational methods. The most prevalent way is the traditional science educational methods applied for the study of natural phenomena rather than choosing new scientific modern concepts such as to include time, spaces, classifying, measuring etc. 4. Educators are not endeavouring in the creation of incentive environmental aspects for the children. The majority of kindergartens are not provided with science corners and the apparatus required to support scientific education are in great deficiency. Therefore, the development of inexpensive scientific training aids and enlightenment of educational application is considered as one of the urgent and essential factors. 5. The development of science training materials based on con templative and explorative faculty of children should also be studied specially. 6. Through either the observation or learning obtained by the field trips, the problem of expenses turned out as the important disadvantageous factor which actually disabling the kindergartens. Consequently, in the implementation of science education, high quality science education centering around the field trips should be planned together with the analysis of stable financial resources which may solve the problem.
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