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韓末 太極學會에 關한 一考察
- 韓末 太極學會에 關한 一考察
- Other Titles
- (A) Study of the Tae Geug academic society in the closing days of the Dae Han Empire
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- 교육대학원 역사교육전공
- 교육구국론; 태극학회; 자립자강론
- 이화여자대학교 교육대학원
- 太極學會는 大韓諸國末期 日帝의 소위 乙巳條約 强要로 사실상 國家主權이 被奪되자 國權恢復이라는 指標아래 活潑한 啓蒙活動을 展開하였던 渡日 留學生들로 構成된 團體였다.
從來 愛國啓蒙運動 및 愛國啓蒙團體에 대한 硏究가 적지 않으나 그 대부분이 國內에 있어서의 活動狀況에 置重되어 있고, 이 時期의 渡日 留學生의 活動狀況과 愛國啓蒙運動에 關한 硏究는 거의 없는 것 같다.
本 論稿는 渡日 留學生들에 의해 組織된 太極學會에 촛점을 맞추어, 海外 留學生들에 의해 展開된 愛國啓蒙運動의 一段을 實證的으로 論證해 보고자 試圖한 것이다.
먼저 序論에서는 課題意識을 밝히고 第二章에서는 太極學會가 成立될 수 있었던 1900年代의 社會的 背景을 다루었으며 第三章에서는 太極學會의 組織과 그 活動狀況을 그리고 第四章에서는 愛國啓蒙時期에 太極學會가 당면한 國內外의 矛盾을 打開하기 위한 一方途로써 提示한 自强論 및 敎育論을 檢證하고, 당시의 時代的 條件과 더불어 太極學會가 愛國啓蒙時期에 차지하고 있던 歷史的 位置을 措定해 보고자 하였다.
太極學會의 創立을 가능케한 當時의 社會的 背景으로서는 愛國啓蒙運動時期에 韓國社會가 지닌 現實的인 矛盾을 解決할 수 있는 方法의 하나로 國家의 急速한 自立과 富强을 위해서 西洋近代의 學問과 技術의 受容이 切實하게 要求되고 있고, 이의 習得을 위해서 外國으로의 留學生 派遣이 不可避하다는 認識이 점차 높아져가, 政府는 1880年代初에서부터 留學生 派遣에 主力하게 되었고 특히 露日戰爭直後 1905∼6年頃에 官費留學生의 大量派遣과 私費留學生의 急激한 增加를 背景으로 하여 留學生 團體인 太極學會가 創立하게 된 것이다.
이와같이 創立된 太極學會는 1908年에 이르러서는 國內에 5個所의 支會를 設置하였고, 學報販賣所가 8個所, 會員數가 600여名에 달하였고, 國外인 美國등지에도 學報販賣所를 設置하는등 積極的인 活動을 展開했음을 알 수 있었다.
그런데 당시 太極學會를 비롯한 渡日 留學生 團體가 地域主義를 脫皮하지 못해, 留學生間의 親睦가 本國 民衆啓蒙이라는 所期의 目的을 達成하기에는 그 多數가 短命에 그치고 있어 留學生 社會에서는 이러한 留學生 團體의 積幣를 打破하기 위하여 「大韓留學生會」, 「大韓學生會」등 留學生團體의 團合을 試圖하였으나 끝내 構成員間의 地域主義에 따른 分立狀態를 克服하지 못하였고, 드디어 1909年 3月 設立된 「大韓興學會」에 이르러서 當初 企圖했던대로 留學生들의 總團體를 設立하는데 成功하였던 것이고, 그때까지 學生活動을 계속하고 있던 太極學會도 이에 뜻을 같이하여 大韓興學會로 統合하게 됨으로 사실상 太極學會는 解消되고만 것이다.
太極學會는 韓國의 國權喪失期에 있어 國權恢復을 위한 基礎로써 우리 民族의 「愛國精神」인 「朝鮮魂」을 잊지않고 수백년간 내려온 依賴習慣에서 脫皮하여 自立·自强精神을 確固히 하면 반드시 獨立을 이룩할 수 있다고 確信하여, 이를 위한 한 方途로써 敎育의 振興을 내 세우고 있다. 太極學會는 敎育論에서 家庭敎育, 學校敎育, 社會敎育의 三段階의 敎育을 重要視하였고, 특히 基礎敎育으로써 家庭敎育과 女性敎育을 중시하였다. 이는 女性에 대한 敎育과 女性의 活動이 國力 增進과 密接한 關係가 있다고 認識하기 시작한 것으로, 여기에서 太極學會가 갖고 있는 女性敎育에 있어서의 意識을 찾아 볼 수 있다. 또한 學校敎育에 있어서는 敎育의 振興과 國權恢復을 위한 國力 養成을 위해서 全國民의 義務敎育 實施를 主張하고, 더 나아가서 學校敎育이란 健全한 國民精神의 涵養과 新學問의 올바른 受容으로 社會敎育의 밑받침이 되며, 이를 위해서는 近代國家에 알맞은 敎育 理念이 定立되어야 한다고 보았으며 이러한 敎育을 實施하기 위해서는 우선 優秀한 敎師를 養成하기 위한 師範敎育에 注力할 것을 强調하는 것이었다.
太極學會는 學會의 本來의 目的인 留學生들간의 親睦 圖謀와 日本內에서의 韓國人의 地位를 뚜렷이 定立시키는데 크게 이바지 한바가 컸고, 더 나아가서 그들은 「先進的인 留學生이란 自負心」과 「大韓人이라는 矜持」를 가지고 民族現實에 대해 莫重한 責任을 切感하고 있어 國內의 愛國啓蒙運動과 그 뜻을 같이하여 國民의 敎育과 啓蒙에 先導的 役割을 擔當하였다는데서 그들의 歷史的 位置가 더욱 돋보이고 있는 것이다.;The Tae Geug Academic Society (太極學會) was an organization of Korean students studying in Japan in the closing days of the Dae Ran Empire who got together under the banner of "restoration of sovereignty" and actively carried on an enlightenment movement when their national rights were virtually usurped by Japan through forced conclusion of the Eul Sa Treaty.
Heretofore, not a few studies have been made on patriotic enlightenment movements and related organizations but in most cases, importance was attached to activities in Korea, and apparently almost no studies were prosecuted on patriotic activities or movements launched by Korean students who studied in Japan in those days.
Therefore, this paper places the focus on the Tae Geug Academic Society formed by those Korean students in Japan and attempts to give as corroborative evidence an aspect of the patriotic enlightenment movement carried on by them.
The INTRODUCTION defines the substance of the study; CHAPTER Ⅱ deals with the social background in the 1900's which permitted formation of the Tae Geug Academic Society; CHAPTER Ⅲ delineates the organization and activities of the Society; and CHAPTER Ⅳ verifies the theories of "self-support" and "education" proposed as a means to overcome the contradictions, both at home and abroad, that confronted the Society during the period of patriotic enlightenment, and seeks supposition of not only the needs of the times but also the historical position of the Society in those days.
The social background which permitted formation of the Tae Geug Academic Society in those days may be explained by the fact that the necessity of introducing the modern western knowledge and technology was keenly felt to overcome the real contradictions that faced the Korean society and to ensure early realization of national independence and wealth. As it was increasingly felt advisable to send Korean students to foreign countries to acquire such advanced knowledge and technology, the Government started, in the early part of the 1880's, to concentrate its efforts on sending students abroad for study. In particular, during the period 1905-1906, right after the outbreak of the Russo-Japanese War, a great number of Korean students were sent abroad by the Government, apart from a rapid increase in the number of those sent for study at their own expense. The Tae Geug Academic Society came into existence under these circumstances.
By the year 1908, the academic society thus founded came to have 5 branch offices and 8 sales offices handling its publications, with a membership of more than 600 in Korea, while actively extending its educational activities to foreign countries with its sales offices set up in the USA etc.
Later, however, various organizations of Korean students in Japan, including the Tae Geug Academic Society, were unable to get rid of localism and most of them were short-lived, falling short of success in achieving their original objectives of "friendship among Korean students abroad" and "enlightenment of the general public in the homeland".
To clean up deep-rooted evils thwarting their activities, attempts were made to strengthen the solidarity of the various groups of Korean students abroad including the "Dae Han Association of Students Abroad" and "Dae Han Students' Society", only to no purpose due to their failure in overcoming localism and separatism then prevailing among them. It was not until March 1909 that all students' bodies operating in Japan were successfully consolidated into one known as "Dae Han Academic Improvement Society" (Dae Han Heung Hag Hoe) (大韓與學會): thus the Tae Geug Academic Society was merged and went out of existence.
During the colonial days, the Tae Geug Academic Society was confident of eventual success in regaining the usurped sovereignty by means of inspiring the general public with patriotism and the "Soul of Korea (朝鮮魂)", doing away with the deepseated reliance on others and uplifting the spirfts of "self-reiance" and "self-support". To this end, it upheld the advancement of education, and its theory of education attached importance to three educational steps such as home education, school education and social education. As the basic education, emphasis was placed on the home training and female education as apparently it came to recognize that, the female education and activities were closely related to the development of national power: from this fact, the real significance of female education upheld by the Society may be grasped.
With respect to the school education, on the other hand, the Society insisted on a nationwide compulsory educational system for the advancement of educational level and the development of national strength for eventual recovery of the sovereignty. Furthermore, the Society recognized the importance of establishing a proper educational doctrine suitable for a modern nation to foster a sound national spirit and ensure right introduction of right knowledge from advanced countries, and to conduct education along this line, it emphasized concentration of efforts on cultivation of competent teachers in the first place.
The Tae Geug Academic Society made a great contribution toward the promotion of friendship among students studying abroad and establishment of the alien status of Korean residents in Japan. Its historical position gains significance particularly in that with a pride as a group of progressive Korean students studying abroad as well as with a strong sense of responsibility for the real plight of the Korean race, it kept pace with the patriotic movement in progress in the homeland and played a leading role in the enlightenment and education of the Korean people as a whole.
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