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새로운 敎會音樂敎育의 敎科課程에 관한 硏究
- 새로운 敎會音樂敎育의 敎科課程에 관한 硏究
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- (A) Study of curricula for college church music
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- 교육대학원 음악교육전공
- 교회음악교육; 교과과정; 종교음악
- 이화여자대학교 교육대학원
- 韓國에 基督敎가 들어온 것은 1880年代에 이르러서였지만 엄밀히 말하면 더 거슬러 올라가야 한다. 1816年 英國人 바질홀(Basil Hall)이 모리슨(Robert Morison) 宣敎師의 부탁으로 漢文聖書를 韓國에 傳한 것이 韓國基督敎의 嚆矢가 되었고, 1832年 獨逸人 칼 구츠라프(Carl A. F. Gutzlaff), 1865年 英國人 토마스(Robert Jermain Thoumas) 등 1880年代에 歐美 各國의 여러 宣敎師가 계속 들어와 傳道活動을 하였다.
韓國敎會音樂은 1880年代를 起点으로 여러 宣敎師들이 中心이 되어 福音傳播를 위한 讚頌歌의 導入에서 비롯되었으며 또한 宣敎師들은 宣敎事業의 하나로 學校를 設立하였는데, 1885年에 아펜셀라(H. D. Appenzeller)가 培材學堂을, 1886年에 스크랜톤(Mrs. M. F. Scranton)이 梨花學堂을 세워 唱歌科目을 敎科課程으로 設定하여 讚頌歌를 內容으로한 音樂敎育이 시작되었는데 이와 같은 事實은 韓國에 音樂敎育이 體系化되기 시작한 契機가 되었다.
韓國의 神學敎育은 1900年代에 시작되면서부터 長老敎, 監理敎, 聖潔敎등 각 敎派에서 敎役者 養成을 目的으로 神學敎育을 實施해 왔기 때문에 音樂과 神學의 均衡이 調和있게 이루어지지 못한 상태였으며 日帝時代에 와서는 彈壓속에서 敎役者 養成을 위한 바른 神學敎育이 되지 못하였다. 그런 가운데 1945年 왜정의 壓迫에서 解放되고 6.25사변이 일어나 民族의 激動期를 맞이하였으나 계속해서 福音傳播로 인해 全國에 敎勢가 확장함에 따라 많은 神學敎가 新設되고 敎會音樂에 대한 專門敎育이 要請되어 1955年에 이르러서 延世大學校 神科大學 內에 宗敎音樂科가 처음으로 開設되어서 敎會音樂 指導者를 養成 輩出할 수 있는 기틀이 마련되었다.
그 후 계속해서 梨花女子大學校(1967), 總神大學(1973), 서울 神學大學(1976), 高麗神學大學(1978), 江南社會福祉學校(舊, 中央神學校)(1979), 長老會神學大學(1980), 湖西大學(1980)에 宗敎音樂科가 開設되었으며 그 이외 群小神學校(大韓神學, 釜山神學, 칼빈, 피어선, 연합측 총회신학교등)에도 宗敎音樂科가 開設되어 敎會音樂 指導者를 養成하고 있어 韓國 敎會音樂이 많은 發展을 하고 있다.
그러나, 韓國 敎會音樂敎育의 發展過程은 여러 가지 問題点을 가지고 發展되어 왔기 때문에 본 論文에서는 이런 問題点을 찾아 새로운 방향을 摸索하므로 바른 敎會音樂의 發展에 一翼을 담당하도록 硏究를 試圖한 것이다.
本 硏究는 文獻硏究를 通하여 基督敎 導入부터 오늘에 이르기까지 敎會音樂敎育의 歷史的인 變遷過程을 簡略하게나마 살펴 보았으며, 分析硏究를 통하여 韓國 敎會音樂敎育에 가장 많은 영향을 끼친 美國 敎會音樂敎育의 敎科課程을 硏究 分析하였으며, 現在 韓國大學의 宗敎音樂科 敎科過程을 分析 硏究하여 다음과 같은 結果를 發見하였다.
첫째, 音樂에 관계된 理論敎育은 基礎理論으로부터 시작되는 學問이므로 一般 音樂大學의 敎科課程에 나타난 理論敎育과 큰 차이가 없었다.
둘째, 專攻實技敎育은 各 大學間의 指導內容이 다르며 구체적으로 明示되어 있지 않고 個人 能力에 따라서 指導하고 있기 때문에 個人 技能을 충분히 發展시킬 수 있는 長點이 있으나 一貫性있는 敎育이 되지 않고 있다.
셋째, 敎會音樂 理論에 必要로 한 神學料目이 敎科課程에 開設되지 않은 大學이 많아 神學과 音樂이 結合이 이루어지지 않고 있어 敎會音樂의 理論的(神學的) 背景이 設定되지 않고 있다.
넷째, 敎會音樂 理論敎育은 各 大學마다 각기 다른 科目名으로 類似 科目이 開設되어 있으며 他科目에 비해 크게 비중을 두지 않고 적게 敎會音樂에 관계된 理論敎育이 體系化되지 않은 狀態에서 運營되고 있다.
다섯째, 敎會音樂敎育은 敎會音樂 指導者 養成을 위한 敎育이므로 統合敎育이 이루어져야 마땅하겠으나 各 大學의 敎科課程은 각기 다른 敎科目이 開設되어 있어 統合敎育이 이루어지지 않고 있다.
本 硏究는 이와같은 現在 상황의 問題点을 硏究 檢討하여 보다 바람직한 發展을 위해서 새로운 方案을 摸索하였다.
이 새로운 方案은 基礎理論을 通한 理論을 體系化기키고, 專攻實技를 通하여 個人 技能을 향상시키며, 統合實習 訓練을 通해서 理論과 實技를 겸한 統合敎育이 이루어질 수 있도록 作成하였다.
이러한 敎育方法이 發展하고 있는 韓國 敎會音樂에 다소나마 도움이 되기를 바라며 이 分野는 계속해서 硏究 發展하여야 할 學問 分野라고 하겠다.;It was not until the 1880s that Christianity was introduced to Korea. Strictly speaking, however, it goes far back beyond that.
The first time Christianity landed in Korea was when an Englishman named Basil Hall passed a Chinese Bible to Korea in 1816 on request from Robert Morrison. In 1832, Carl A.F. Gutzlaff, a German, came to Korea, and in 1865 an Englishman named Robert Jermain Thomas also visited Korea for evangelical work.
Korean church music originates from the introduction of hymns by many missionaries during the 1880s for evangelical work. As part of their missionary work, foreign missionaries established schools. In 1885 H. D. Apenzeller established Bae jae Institute of Learning, and in 1886, Mrs. M. F. Scranton established Ewha Institute of Learning, and offered music education featuring hymns. This led to a systematic work on music education in Korea.
Theological education in Korea started early in the 1900s.
However, the initial education offered by various denominations including Presbyterian, Methodist and Anglican churches was chiefly designed to cultivate religious workers. Hence, there was no balance between music and theology. Moreover, under repression by Japanese colonial ruler, it was hard to offer substantial theological education for prospective religious workers.
Korea was eventually liberated from Japanese colonial rule, but underwent a turbulent time stemming from the outbreak in 1950 of the Korean War. Missionary work, however, had been kept going, uninterrupted, despite national adversity, giving rise to the establishment of a number of theological schools.
Consequently, need for a specialized education on church music arose, and Yonsei University provided Korea's first religious music education in 1955 by opening a department of religious music to cultivate church music leaders.
Many other schools followed suit --- Ewha Women's University (1967), Seoul Theological Seminary (1976), Korea Theological Seminary (1978), Kangnam College of Social Welfare (1979), Presbysterian Theological Seminary (1980), and Hoseo College (1980).
The departments of church music education were also opened in small theological schools including Tae Han Theological Seminary, Pusan Seminary, Calvin Theological Seminary and Pierson Memorial Biblical Seminary and much progress has been made in Korean church music education to cultivate church music leaders.
Since many problems had been inherent in the development of the church music in Korea, this study is intended to search for new directions of church education by plinpointing such problems, with a view to stimulating further development of Korean church music education.
In this study, the basis of music as is cited by Old and New Testament has been reviewed through bibliographical study, and a brief review was made of the historical process of change leading from the early church era to the present.
In addition, analytic study was made of the curriculae of the Amercan church music education which have had profound bearings on Korean church music education. This, coupled with the analytic look at the curriculae of religious music departments in Korean universities, yielded the following findings:
First, there was not much difference between music-relate theoretical education and the theoretical education as is included in curriculum of music colleges in general, apparently because the theoretical education mainly deals with basic theory.
Second, practices in major are not shown in detail in the contents since teaching is being given on the basis of individual ability, it does not lead to unified education even though it provides a merit to fully develop one's own individual ability.
Third, many institutes of higher learning did not provide curriculae related to theological education, making it hard to establish a theoretical background of church music, because theology has not been closely linked with music.
Fourth, curriculae on education in music theory varied according to the school, indicating that theoretical education on church music was not systematized.
Fifth, church music education is supposed to remain an education of integrity, since it is designed to cultivate church music leaders. But the education of integrity has not been established, because universities have their own differing curriculae.
A new approach was conceived in order to help correct such a situation. The new approach calls for systematizing theories by integrating basic theory, nurturing individual skill through specialized actual practice, and integrated training.
This educational approach may provide an aid to Korean church music education for its futher progress.
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