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開化期와 日常時代의 英語敎育
- 開化期와 日常時代의 英語敎育
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- (A) study on English education during the periods of enlightenment and Japanese colonical rule of Korea
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- 교육대학원 어학교육전공영어교육분야
- 개화기; 일상시대; 영어교육
- 이화여자대학교 교육대학원
- This study is intended to inquire into the early history of English education in Korea, especially during the period from 1880's to 1945, in regard to its academic and methological aspect as well as its political and cultural effect on the development of Korean society and by attaching historical meaning to our experience of English education in the past, to provide a substantial reference for future planning of English education.
The English education in Korea began not before 1883 when government institutes such as Government School and Royal English School were established for the English teaching. As christian mission schools were introduced into Korea, they took up the English subject as their main curriculum, though their primary purpose was to propagate the Gospel.
All those educational institutes in the early days were those of simple type quite different from those systematized schools as we see today.
When modern school system was started by Japanese in 1900's, it was as a part of whole curriculum that high schools and college took up the English language teaching.
Inquires into various stages of English education as above reveal the following facts :
a. The English education in Korea took place from the inevitable necessities of the specific age which forced Koreans to expose themselves, as interpreters, translators or diplomates, to new international scene.
b. In those early days, the English teaching method was characterized by the language proficiency nature by native speakers, and contributed greatly in providing good quantity of interpreters or desk officers of government organizations which should handle English in their routine business.
However, the English education in later days, under Japanese rule, gave more emphasis on the training of eyes and brains rather than of ears and tongues, and was performed mostly by grammatists than by native speakers, and English subject was taken up as a part of whole school curriculum instead of being a main subject, so that it contributed little in providing quantity of active language officers, though the standard of general academic society to absorb foreign Knowledge and culture through literature were highly elevated.
c. Whatever the effect the English education gave on the society of those days might have been, it is very suitable to admit one significant historical meaning which had ever-shadowed the society through that half century.
That is, English education had always played a role of leading the society, at first by operating as a mediator for the foreign cultures and western civilization to be quickly introduced into Korea at the enlightenment stage, and later
by operating as a channel, breaking through Japanese surveillance, for the flow in and out of new political ideologies which has stimulated anti-Japanese movement through out the period of Japanese occupation of the land.
In the course of changing ages, English education in Korea was once interrupted by Japanese anti-American policy during the 2nd World War period, roughly from 1941 to 1945.
And when schools in Korea reassumed the English education after 1945, the purpose and the system of English education were to be restablished to meet the new need.
Nowadays, our language education could be said to have little difficulties as far as its methodology is concerned, however, I dare hope the thesis of this study could be by any means a subject of consideration by responsible for the study of future educational planning.;本 硏究의 目的은 同文學校가 設立된 1883年부터 1945年 解放까지의 韓國內에서의 英語敎育發達過程을 學問的으로 體系化하는데 있다.
本 硏究에서는 1883年부터 1945年까지의 韓國의 英語敎育의 目的, 機關, 內容, 方法 등의 變遷過程과 英語敎育이 社會發展에 미친 政治, 社會, 文化面에서의 영향을 돌이켜 봄으로써, 英語敎育과 關聯된 歷史的 意義를 찾음에 있다.
本 硏究 第2章에서는 우리나라 開化期에 있어서의 英語敎育의 胎動過程에서 부터, 同文學校, 育英公院, Mission系 學校 및 官立 外國語學校時代를 거쳐, 日帝時代의 正規 中等學校로 이어지는 英語敎育의 發展過程을 살펴 보았다.
第3章에서는 特別히 日帝時代의 敎育을 獨立시켜 第1次 朝鮮敎育令 時代, 第2次 朝鮮敎育令 時代, 第3, 4次 朝鮮敎育令 時代로 나누어 中等敎育과 高等敎育에서 英語敎育이 차지했던 比重을 考察해 보았다.
以上의 考察에서 抽出될 수 있었던 沿革的 事實은 다음과 같다.
첫째, 우리나라에 있어서의 英語敎育은 1880年代初 우리 나라가 外國과의 交流를 시작하지 않을 수 없었던 開化期의 不得이한 必要性때문에 急速히 發展하게 된 것이다.
둘째, 우리나라에서 最初로 設立된 英語敎育機關은 同文學校, 育英公院,, 英語學校, 官立外國語學校 및 宣敎師들이 設立한 Mission系 學校 等, 營漁를 主敎科科目으로 하는 學校들로서, 이는 우리나라의 敎育制度가 一定한 軌道에 오르기 前의 學校形態였다. 그후 日帝時代에 이르러서는 上記 敎育機關中 Mission 系 學校를 除外한 其他學校는 모두 廢止되고 그 대신 登場한 近代的 中高等學校 및 專門大學에서 全敎科의 一部로서 英語敎育이 實施되었다.
셋째, 開化期에 있어서의 英語敎育方法은 Native Speaker에 依한 순수한 英語敎育에 重點을 두었기 때문에 通譯官, 外交官吏, 기타 外國語 專用 實務者를 養成하는데 많은 寄與를 했고, 日帝時代에 들어와서의 敎育方法은 一部 Mission 系 學校를 除外하고는 Native Speaker에 依한 귀와 입의 訓練보다는 눈과 머리의 敎育 즉 文法과 文章위주의 敎育方法으로 전환했기 때문에 文獻을 通한 外國文物의 收取를 위한 知識開發에는 크게 기여하였으나 會話등 活動面에는 오히려 등한시되어 왔다.
넷째, 英語가 우리 社會, 政治, 文化에 미친 歷史的 影響도 컸다. 즉, 開化期에 있어서의 英語는 우리에게 海外感覺과 새로운 文物을 導入해 주는 促進劑 役割을 하였고, 日帝時代에는 韓國人이 日帝의 압력을 迂廻하여 國際感覺 및 近代的 思想에 가까이 갈 수 있는 通路의 役割을 함으로써, 獨立運動을 先導하는 作用의 主要部分을 담당하였다.
우리나라에 있어서의 英語敎育은 上記와 같이 開化期 때에는 크게 發展하였으나 日帝統治時代에는 日本의 植民政策으로 英語敎育은 命脈을 維持했을 뿐이다. 1914年 발발된 太平洋戰爭을 契機로 日帝 악랄한 抑壓에 依하여 한때 空白期를 맞이한 바는 있으나 1945年 解放과 더불어 英語敎育은 다시 그 必要性에 依하여 全盛期를 맞이하였을 때는 過去와는 또 다른 角度에서 敎育의 理念과 體系는 樹立되어야 했다.
오늘날 우리는 最新의 方法과 人的資源을 活用하여 繼續的으로 새로운 敎育方法을 開發시키고 있다는데 異論은 없으나, 本 硏究者는 우리나라 過去의 英語敎育을 考察해 봄으로써 現 時點에서의 敎育目標를 再定立하고 보다 效果的인 敎育體系를 發展시키는데 도움을 주고자 한다.
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