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國民學校 算數科에 있어서 練習經驗樣式이 學業成就에 미치는效果에 關한 硏究

Title
國民學校 算數科에 있어서 練習經驗樣式이 學業成就에 미치는效果에 關한 硏究
Other Titles
(An) Exparimental Study on the effect of a new practice method upon the achievement in Elementary Mahematics Learning
Authors
趙日愛
Issue Date
1974
Department/Major
교육대학원 교육학전공초등교육분야
Keywords
국민학교산수과연습경험양식학업성취교육학
Publisher
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
Ⅰ. The problem s The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of a new practice method upon student achievement in elementary arithmetic learning. The new practice method applied in the present study is defined here structured practices distributed over ten periods during the total instructional time and.sequentialized on the basis of learning hierachy identified at the end of unit task analysis. Specific research question to be dealt with in this study is as follows : Will the student treated by the new practice method(sequentialized and distributed) show higher achievement score and/or learning gains in math learning than the students treated by traditional practice method, once-massive practice given at the end of initial teaching-learning for the whole unit. Ⅱ. Hypothesis 1. Students, when treated by new practice method Ⅰ, sequentialized and distributed, show higher achievement score than students treated by traditional practice method. 2. Students, when treated by new practice method with immediate feedback on the results of practice show higher achievement score than the students treated by new practice method without immediate feedback. 3. Students, when treated by new practice method both with and without immediate feedback, show higher learning gains than students treated by traditional practice method. 4. Students with the new practice method and immediate feedback will show higher learning gain than the students with the new practice method only. Ⅲ. Independent and Dependent Variables Some of the important variables in this study, independent and dependent variables and their respective definition are as follows : 1. Independent Variables The three different treatment riethods, the two new practice methods with and without immediate feedback, and the traditional practice method are regarded as independent variables in this study. The new practice method is defined here as distributed practices sequentially designed on the basis of learning hierarchy identified. The two, new methods share these characteristics in common. They differ however, in the feedback followed. The new method Ⅰ is practiced without immediate feedback on the results of practices, and the new method Ⅱ is practiced with immediate feedback on the results of the practice. The traditional method is defined here as the conventional way of practice, which is usually given, after the textbook presentation order, at the completion of the learning unit. 2. Dependent Variables Scores on the post test were adopted as dependent variable in this study. Post test scores represent the mastery level of the unit terminal objectives. Individual learning gains and group means were also derived and ueed as a dependent variable. Ⅳ. Research Design 1. Subjects Six classes of 5th graders were randomly selected out of 12 classes in Sangdo Elementary School. 476 5th graders in those 6 classes, 3 for boy and 3 for girls, has been subject for this study. 2. Design Experimental-control with pre and post experimental design was made for this study. Two classes were assigned to experimental group A, and two classes to experimental group B, and the other remaining two classes to control group. The new practice method without feedbac wes used as treatment A for group A, and the new practice method with feedback was used as treatment B for group B. The traditional practice method was as treatment C for the control group C. 3. Instruments Pre and post test material were made by experimenter to measure the criterion behavior or unit terminal objectives for which the lesson unit, the ratio, the first unit of. the textbook of the 1st semester of 5th graders. Ten practice worksheets were designed, 7 for the first half and 3 for the latter part of the unit learning, and used for the in experimental groups A and B. Ⅴ. Results Some of the important findings from this study can be summarized as in the following tables 1 and 2. Table 1. Comparison of group means on post test ◁표 삽입▷(원문을 참조하세요) Table 2. Comparison of group learning Pains ◁표 삽입▷(원문을 참조하세요) As shown in the above two tables, 3 out of the 4 research hypotheses described earlier were supported by the data. The hypothesis(second) that the students in the group B(treated by new practice method with feedback) will show higher achievement scores on the post test was not supported by the data. Ⅵ. Conclusion The following statements may be made as'the conclusion of the study. 1. Students when taught in learning situation where the distributed practices sequentially designed on the basis of learning hierarchy are required tend to show higher achievement in elementary mathematics than students taught in the situation where the traditional practice method is used. 2. Students' learning in the situation where distributed practices are required seem to be facilitated when immediate feedbacks on the resuls of practices made. The above conclusion, however, should not be generalized to other subject matter learning and other graders.;A. 硏究의 問題 본 硏究의 目的은 국민학교 학생의 算數料 學習에서 의도적으로 構造化된 練習經驗의 效果가 學業成就에 미치는 영향을 알아보려는 것이다. 本 硏究에서 밝히고자하는 問題는 다음과 같다. 새로운 練習經驗 (1)(2)에 依한 學習을 시키면 孝生들은 學業成就 경향과 學習增進率을 보일 것인가? B. 反說 1. 學習課題를 課題分析 結果에 기초해서 位階的으로 構成하고 分散的 分習法에 依해 연습(이하 새로운 練習經驗 Ⅰ이라 한다)을 시키면 교과서의 순서에 따라 單元 끝에 주어지는 集中的 學習法 에 依한 연습(傳統的 方法)의 경우 보다 높은 학업성취 경향을 보인다. 2. 연습결과를 과제분석 결과에 기초해서 位階的으로 構成하고 分散的 分習法에 衣해 練習을 시키되 그때 그때 연습의 결과를 학습자에게 再投入(이하 새로운 練醫經驗 Ⅱ라 한다)을 시키면 再役人이 없는 새로운 練習經驗 Ⅰ의 경우보다 더 높은 학업성취 경향을 보인다. 3. 새로운 練習經驗 Ⅰ과 Ⅱ에 의해 학습한 集團(A,B)는 傳統的 練習에 의해 學習한 集團 (C)보다 더 높은 학습증진율을 보인다. 4. 새로운 練習經驗 Ⅱ에 의해 學習한 集團 (B)는 새로운 練習經驗 Ⅰ에 의해 학습한 集團 (A)보다 더 높은 학습증진율을 보인다. C. 獨立變因과 從屬變因 1. 獨立變因 獨立變因은 새로운 練習經驗 Ⅰ과 Ⅱ, 傳統的 練習經驗을 의미한다. 가. 새로운 練習經驗(Ⅰ) - 연습과제를 과제분석 결과에 기초해서 位階的으로 構成하고 분산적 분습법에 의한 연습을 하는 練習經驗을 말한다. 나. 새로운 練習經驗(Ⅱ) - 練習經驗로 課題分析 結果에 기초해서 位階的으로 구성하고 分散的 分習法에 의해 연습을 시키되 그때 그때 연습의 결과를 학습자에게 再投入하는 練習經驗을 말한다. 다. 傳統的 練習經驗 - 교과서의 순서에 따라 단원 끝에 주어지는 集中的 全習法에 의한 연승의 경우를 말한다. 2. 從屬變因 從屬變因으로는 비율단원의 最終 學習目標에 얼마나 도달했는 가를 나타내는 算數成績을 의미한다. 산수성적은 사후검사에서의 성취도와 학습증진율로 정의된다. D. 方法 1. 對 象 서울 S국민학교 5학년 12학급 중에서 無選標集한 男子 3학급 女子 3학급 도합 6학급 476명을 대상으로 하였다. 2. 資料 業驗資料는 국민학교 국정교과서 算數科 5학년 2학기 첫단원 "비율"에서 單元構造 및 授業目標 分類後 製作한 事前 事後 檢査紙와 前期 練習問題紙 7매 後期 締習問題紙 3매를 사용하였다. 그리고 質問紙 1매를 사용하였다. 3. 硏究의 設計 實驗方案으로는 실험통계, 事前-事後檢査法을 택하였으며 實驗集團(A)(B)와 比較集團(C)에 각각 2學씩級 무선적으로 配定하였다. 實驗集團(A)에는 새로운 締習經驗 Ⅰ이 實施되었고 實驗集團(B)에는 새로운 練習經驗 Ⅱ, 比較集團(C)에는 전통적 方法의 練習이 實施되었다. 4. 實驗節次 實驗에 着手하기 前日 6학급에 事前調査를 實施하였다. 實驗 군 중 (A)그룹인 2학급에는 前期 연습문제와 後期 연습문제를 연습로록 하였으며 (B)그룹인 두 학급에는 전기 후기 연습문제를 연습한 뒤 그 結果를 確認하여 학습결손이 심한 부분에 再投入을 實施하였다. 가설 검증을 위해 t검증으로 통계처리를 했다. E. 結果 이 연구에서 밝혀진 중요 결과는 다음과 같다. 표1 : 사후검사의 결과 분석◁표 삽입▷(원문을 참조하세요) 표2 : 학습증진율의 비교표 위의 두표에서 나타나는 바와같이 가설 1. 2. 3. 4중에서 1. 3. 4는 지지되었다. 그러나 실험집단 B (피드백이 뒤따르는 새로운 연습경험조직Ⅱ )가 높은 학업성취를 보일 것이라는 가설 2는 사후검사 평균에서 지지되지 못했다. F. 結論 첫째 연습의 과제를 單元 學習課題의 分析 結果에서 얻어진 위계에 따라 작은 單位로 정하고 그 회수를 자주하는 分散的 分習法에 의해 練習經驗을 하면 교과서의 순서에 따라 단원학습과제를 모두 학습한 후에 비로서 집중적 전습법에 의해 연습을 하는 것에 비해, 보다 높은 학업 성취 경향을 가져 온다. 둘째 위와같이 구조화된 練習經驗을 그때 그때 練習의 結果를 學習者에게 再役入할 때 더 效果的인 것 같다.
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