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家庭環境의 各要因이 要求水準 設定에 미치는 影響

Title
家庭環境의 各要因이 要求水準 設定에 미치는 影響
Authors
李玉珩.
Issue Date
1973
Department/Major
교육대학원 교육학전공교육심리분야
Keywords
가정환경요구수준교육심리
Publisher
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
논문의 개요 問題 本 硏究는 要求水準의 現實性 與否에 기초를 두고 家庭環境의 諸 要因이 要求水準 設定에 어떻게 影響을 미치는가를 檢證하는데 目的이 있다. 이 硏究에서 밝히고자 하는 問題는 다음과 같다. 1. 家庭의 價値指向性 如何가 兒童의 要求水準 設定에 어떤 影響을 미치는가? 2. 家庭의 集團性格 如何가 兒童의 要求水程 設定에 어떤 影響을 미치는가? 3. 家庭의 心理的 過程 如何가 兒童의 要求水準 設定에 어떤 影響을 미치는가? 假說 Ⅰ. 家庭의 價値指向性으로 「社會上昇主義」가 높은 集團은 낮은 集團에 比하여 現實的 要求水準을 設定할 것이며, 「物質指向 主義」와 「傳統主義」가 낮은 集團은 높은 集團에 比하여 現實的 要求水準을 設定할 것이다. Ⅱ. 家庭의 集團性格으로 「役割期待」가 낮은 集團은 높은 集團에 比하여 現實的 要求水準을 設定할 것이며, 「相互態度」와 「凝結力」이 높은 集團은 낮은 集團에 比하여 現實的 要求水準을 設定할 것이다. Ⅲ. 家庭의 心理的 過程으로 「成就」,「開放」,「親愛」,「自律」이 높은 集團은 낮은 集團에 比하여 現實的 要求水準을 設定할 것이다. 方法 및 節次 道具 家庭環境診斷檢査 國民學校 4-6 學年用(鄭元植, 서울, 코리안테스팅센타, 1971). 要求水準檢査 : 1回 반대말 10問題와 비슷한말 10問題의 20 問題로 構成되어 있고 每回 難易度가 비슷한 5回用 單語檢査와 每回 檢査 前 豫想點數를 쓰는 豫想點數紙로 되어 있다. 被驗者 서울 市內 2個 국민학교 4학년 남여 238명(男125名, 女113名)을 對象으로 하였다. 節次 家庭環境診斷檢査는 標準化된 節次에 따랐으며, 스태나인점수(Stanine Score) 5를 中心으로 1~4를 下位集團, 6~9를 上位集團으로 하였다. 要求水準檢査는 每回 檢査를 받기 전 다음 試驗에서 받을 수 있는 점수를 豫想하게 하고, 4분 동안 本 檢査를 실시하고, 檢査가 끝나면 그 問題의 正答을 불러준다. 이와같은 方法으로 5回에 걸쳐 실시한다. 豫想點數에서 實際點數를 뺀 誤差의 5回 合計에서 上位 35%를 十非現實的 要求水準 集團, 中位 30%를 現實的 要求水準 集團, 下位 35%를 一非現實的 要求水準 集團 團으로 간주하였다. 統計處理는 家庭環境의 上, 下位 集團을 十非現實的 要求水準 集團, 現實的 要求水準 集團, 一非現實的 要求水準 集團에 따라 頻度를 내어 X²로 頻度差異 檢證을 하였다. 結果 1. 家庭의 價値指向性 要因인 「社會上昇主義」,「物質指向主義」,「傳統主義」의 각 세要因이 높은 집단과 낮은 집단 間에는 要求水準 設定에 意義있는 差가 發見되지 않았다. 2. 家庭의 集團性格 中「役割期待」가 낮은 집단은 높은 集團에 比하여 現實的 要求水準을 設定했으며 (p<.01), 「相互熊度」가 높은 集團은 現實的 要求水準을 設定하거나 一非現實的 要求水準을 設定했고 낮은 集團은 十非現實的 要求水準을 設定했으며 (p<.01), 「凝結力」이 높은 集團과 낮은 집단 間에는 要求水準 設定에 意義있는 差가 發見되지 않았다. 3. 家庭의 心理的 過程 中 「成就」 (p<.01), 「開放」(p<.01), 「自律」(.01<P<.05)이 높은 集團은 現實的 要求水準을 設定했으며,「親愛」가 높은 集團은 現實的 要求水準을 證定하거나 一非現實的 要求水準을 設定했고 낮은 集團은 十非現實的 要求水準을 設定했다 (.01<P<.O5).;Problems The present study, based on whether the reality of the Level of Aspiration is or not, disigned to investigate how all factors of Home Environment have effects on establishing the Level of Aspiration. The problems investigated in this study are as follows : 1. What effects do the Value Orientation of Home have on establishing the Level of Aspiration? 2. What effects do the Group Characteristics of Home have on establishing the Level of Aspiration? 3. What effects do the Psychological Process of Home have on establishing the Level of Aspiration? Hypothesis The following Hypothesis were established to be tested : Ⅰ. In the Value Orientation of Home, the group of higher Social Ladder - Oriented will establish a more realistic Level of Aspiration than that of lower Social Ladder - Oriented, and the group of lower Material-Oriented and Tradition-Oriented will establish a more realistic Level of Aspiration than that of higher Material-Orientated and Tradition-Oriented Ⅱ. In the Group of Charactors of Home, the group of lower Role Expectation will establish a more realistic Level of Aspiration than that of higher Role Expectation, and the group of higher Mutual Attitude and group Cohesivensess will establish more realistic Level of Aspiration than that of lower Mutual Attitude and group Cohesiveness. Ⅲ. In the Psychological Process of Home, the group of higher Achivement, Social Openness, Affection and Autonomy will establish a more realistic Level of Aspiration than that of none-achivement, Social Openness, Rejection and Dependance. Method Tools Diagnostic Test of Home Environment for pupils in 4th to 6th grade at elementary school(W.S. Chung, Seoul, K.T.C., 1971) Test of Aspiration Level; The test consists of 10 items of synonyms and 10 items of antonyms. This test was composed of 5 times of vocabulary test with equal difficulty each time and expecting score paper on which subjects should write down their own expecting score Subjects The sample consisted of 236 pupile(125 School boys and 113 School girls) in fourth grade from two elementary school in Seoul. Procedure The Diagnostic Test of Home Environment was applied in accordance with the standard procedure. The Test based on stanine score 5, therefore 1 to 4 of stamine score was considered as-lower-rank group, and 6 to 9 as higher-rank group. The Test of Aspiration Level was progressed such as, "before testing each time the testee should anticipate the expecting score which they can obtain, thereafter, receive the main test for 4 minutes, and upon finishing the test correcting words are noted. And there are five parallel forms." From the sum of the 5 differences between the expect score and real one, the higher-rank 35% was regarded as positive (+) impractical Level of Aspiration group, the middle 30% as realistic Level of Aspiration group and lower-rank 35% as negative (-) impractical Level of Aspiration group. For the purpose of statistical treatment They were Classifised the higher-rank and lower-rank of Home environment according to positive(+) inpractical Level of Aspiration group, realistic Level of Aspiration group and negative (-) impratical Level of Aspiration group. Accordingly, x² was figured out from the above. Results 1. Any noticeable difference was not discovered between factors of Home Value Orientation, that was Social Ladder-Oriented, Material Oriented and Tradition-Oriented. 2. Among the Group Characters of Home the group of Lower Role Expection established a more realistic Level of Aspiration than that of higher Role Expection. The group of higher Mutual-attitude established a realistic Level of Aspiration or negative (-) impractical Level of Aspiration, and the group of lower Mutual Attitude established positive (+) impractical Level of Aspiration. Also any noticeable difference was not discovered between higher Cohesivensess Group and lower one. 3. Among the psychological process of Home, the group of higher Achivement, Social Openness, Autonomy established a more realistic Level of Aspiration than that of lower one. The group of higher Affection established a realistic Level of Aspiration, or negative (-) impractical Level of Aspiration, and the group of higher Rejection established positive (+) impractical Level of Aspiration.
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