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숫막새 瓦當에 나타난 蓮華紋 硏究

Title
숫막새 瓦當에 나타난 蓮華紋 硏究
Other Titles
(A) STUDY ON LOTUS FLOWER PATTERN IN ROOF TILES : Mainly on Shilla Dynasty
Authors
李允珠
Issue Date
1985
Department/Major
산업미술대학원 산업미술학과요업디자인전공
Keywords
숫막새와당연화문요업디자인
Publisher
이화여자대학교 산업미술대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
人類의 文化가 變化됨에 따라 각기 독특한 文化圈을 形成하고 人類의 定着生活 이후 家屋은 多彩로운 發展을 계속하여 왔다. 특히 우리나라는 中國風의 樣式이 전래된 이래로, 韓國化된 樣式을 이루면서 더욱 발전하였다. 기와를 얹은 木造 建築이 시작되면서 瓦當 또한 많은 多樣化를 가져오게 된 것이다. 따라서 本 硏究에서는 독특한 文化를 꽃피웠던 新羅의 숫막새 瓦當에 나타난 蓮華紋을 硏究하여 新羅人의 造形意識을 찾아보고자 한다. 硏究의 範圍는 新羅時代를 中心으로 慶州 地域 및 각 寺址에서 出土된 숫막새 蓮華紋 瓦當으로 限定하였다. 硏究 方法은 각 寺址와 博物館의 遺物을 中心으로 資料를 收集하여으며, 文獻的 考察도 兼하였다. 한편 瓦當의 起源과 變遷 過程에 대해서 살펴 보았다. 瓦當은 建築物의 屋蓋面을 덮던 用材로 使用되는 것으로 "梵語의 迦波羅로부터 轉化된 것, 屋蓋被覆의 意味, 甲胄의 古名, 龜甲의 呼稱으로부터 由來된 것"으로, 瓦當의 정확한 起源을 찾기란 매우 어려운 일이나, 中國 古代瓦當의 起源은 東洋 古瓦의 本源이 된다고 할 수 있으므로 그 起源을 中國에서 찾아 보았다. 文獻上으로는 夏代에 瓦當이 제작되었다고 하나 立證할만한 根據가 없으며, 殷과 周에 있어서도 根據가 나타나지 않는 것으로 보아서 이 시기에는 아마도 粘土製의 瓦當이 아닌 나무나 띠풀로 만들어진 것이 아닌가 추측된다. 한편 現存하는 最古의 瓦當은 戰國時代에 찾을 수가 있으며, 秦·漢代에 이르면 半圓型의 瓦當에서 原型 瓦當으로 變化하고 있고, 文字瓦, 紋樣瓦로 多樣하게 變遷되면서 六朝로 계승되어 建築材로서 보다 一般化되었다. 특히 佛敎 傳來 以後 瓦當 文樣 形式에 획기적인 전환을 가져와 紋樣瓦로 변천되었다. 우리나라에는 三國時代에 造瓦 技術이 傳來되었다. 다음은 蓮華紋의 傳來와 瓦當에 도입된 動機와 時機를 살펴 보았다. 蓮華紋은 佛敎 美術의 全盤에 나타나는 장식 紋樣으로 매우 多樣한 意匠을 보여준다. 蓮華는 인도에서 聖花로 여겨지는 꽃으로 佛敎의 傳來와 함께 中央 아시아를 거쳐 中國에 이르고 다시 우리나라에 전해졌는데, 蓮華紋이 多樣하게 쓰여지게 된 動機는 富貴와 萬歲를 所願하는 사람들의 마음과, 물 속에서 成長하여 火災를 피하고 맑은 깨끗함을 의미하여 각 寺址와 宮殿 등의 瓦當에 主紋樣으로 사용된 것으로 본다. 蓮華紋 瓦當의 樣式 分類는 新羅時代 숫막새 瓦當에 나타난 蓮華紋 瓦當을 수집하고, 커다랗게 單瓣, 復瓣, 重瓣蓮華紋의 3가지 類型으로 분류하고 그에 따른 構成上의 特徵을 細分化하여 圖版과 더불어 설명하였다. 이러한 樣式 分類를 通해서 그 造形性을 찾으려 하였다. 新羅時代 숫막새 蓮華紋 瓦當에 나타난 造形性을 點, 線, 面으로 區分하여 살펴보고 圖式化를 試圖하였다. 이상에서 本人은 新羅人들의 自由로운 想像力과 놀라운 創造力을 볼 수 있었다. 限定된 空間 內에서 그들은 自然物을 觀察, 分解하고 再組立하여 아름다움을 創造하는 놀라운 造形意識의 所有者들이었음을 알 수 있었다.;The human culture has changed variously in each aspect of the specific culture and the house has developed variously since mankind lived in a fixed life. Especially, Korean culture has more developed since she accepted the Chinese culture. And as there appeared the roof tiles with the development of the wooden house, the lotus flower developed variously. In these thesis, I tried to examine the will to form of the Shilla in the lotus flower roof tiles of shilla which had a very pealiar culture. Among the various patterns I tried to examine the lotus flower pattern of the Shilla. I gathered the literature of the lotus flower in the museum and by means of field investigation. There are various problems in the exact examination of the origin of roof tiles and in the establishment of a systematic system. But I tried to examine the origin of the old oriental roof tiles through the examination of the origin and transmission of the old chinese. I tried to examine about the transition motive acceptance time of lotus flower pattern in roof tiles. The lotus flower was considered as the glorious flower in Indo. And it was transmitted in Korea through the middle East and China. Especially, the lotus flower symbolizes the purities. And it has a specific character in the sphere of the oriental fine arts as a sort of decoration style and Buddism style. The lotus flower, though blooming in muddy water. But it is pure. The reason why the lotus flower pattern in carved in roof tile. In this, I tried to the lotus flower roof tile of Shilla is classified as follows in large. 1. Single petal lotus flower pattern. 2. Composite petal lotus flower pattern. 3. Folded Petal lotus flower pattern. And these are subdivided again into the Character of the composition with picture. Through the classification of this. I found as follows. The lotus flower of Shilla has very fundamental elements of moulding. They have point, line, face. They are harmonized with each others in a defined space and make the beauty. Seeds carved in the ovary. Pearl pattern carved inside and outside of the ovary. Pearl pattern carved in the edge. Show an interesting special beauty with large and small shape on the flat surface of relief. The pistils and stamen of the flower increase the visual effect by showing the sense of movement and direction with very fine lines. Folded petal used the beauty of reiteration and carved form in the beside edge zone are an expression of excellent imagenation of people in Shilla Dynasty and who represent the perfect beauty by showing their will for moulding delicately and romantically also in a small roof tile. I therefore, allege that the roof tile of lotus flower pattern in Shilla Dynasty reached the highest level in oriental roof tile history as it created the unique design of Shilla Dynasty in combination with the introduction of Buddism and their liberal will for moulding. The formative sense of Shilla Dynasty not show things as they were but endowed them their unlimited imagination through scrutinized observation. They analized and rearranged things by their imagination derived from spiritual unity with life and Buddism. They accomplished the symbolism and cubic effect well harmonized with the whole work, too. This rearrangement of forming factors composing organic relation shows the outstanding formative sense Shilla Dynasty and their desires pursuing the perfect formative beauty. Free composition with point, line and face carved on roof tiles reached the perfection of beauty. Their formative sense mixed with factors co-related unification, Contrast, repetition, accumulation, eurthythmy makes us feel the beauty and this stemmed from their daily life conscious of art and native.
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