View : 123 Download: 0

兒童의 道德的 判斷에 미치는 意圖, 損失, 社會的反應의 影響

Title
兒童의 道德的 判斷에 미치는 意圖, 損失, 社會的反應의 影響
Other Titles
USE OF INTENTION, DAMAGE AND SOCIAL CONSEQUENCE INFORMATION IN THE CHILDREN'S MORAL JUDGMENT
Authors
柳錦淑
Issue Date
1981
Department/Major
교육대학원 교육학전공유아교육분야
Keywords
아동도덕적 판단의도손실사회적 반응
Publisher
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
Piaget의 도덕판단에 관한 認知理論約 接近에 근거하여 아동의 도덕적 판단의 기준이 연령에 따라 어떻게 달라지는가를 알아 보았다. 본연구에서 사용한 主要 變因으로는 연령, 의도, 損失, 사회적 반응 등의 4개였다. 연령은 集團間 變因이었으며, 의도, 손실, 사회적 반응은 피험자내 변인이었다. 이 연구를 위해 3개의 假說을 說定하고, 이를 검증할 수 있는 主題를 포함한 8개의 이야기를 구성하였다. 각 이야기에서는 행위자의 의도, 손실, 부모의 반응 등이 각각 다르게 조합되었다. 표집대상은 서울시내 1개 유치원 아동 40명, 1개 국민학교 2학년 아동 40명(남, 녀 반반씩)이었다. 이들 각 아동에게 8개의 이야기를 하나씩 들려주고 그 행위자에 대한 판단을 7點尺度上에 評定하게 하여 어떤 變因에 의해 아동이 도덕적 판단을 했는가를 점수로 알 수 있게 하였다. 그 결과를 학년(2)×의도(2)×손실(2)×부모의 반응(2)의 四元變量 分析을 하였다. 변량분석의 결과 3개 가설이 모두 P<. 05수준 이상에서 支持되었음이 발견되었다. 즉, 유치원 아동은 행위자의 의도나 물질적 손실 정도에는 관계없이 무조건 부모의 반응이 좋으면 좋은 것으로, 부모의 반응이 나쁘면 나쁜 것으로 판단하였다. 이는 성인기준에 동조하는 현상으로서 Piaget의 타율적 도덕성 발달 단계에 속함을 말해준다. 반면에 국민학교 2학년 아동은 父母의 反應如何에는 전혀 관계없이 행위자의 意圖가 좋은 경우에는 그를 좋게, 의도가 나쁜 경우에는 그를 나쁘게 판단하였고, 이 판단을 함에 있어서 物質的 損失의 정도가 크냐 작으냐도 상당히 고려하고 있음이 나타났다. 특히 의도가 나쁠때 물질적 손실의 정도는 판단에 않은 영향을 주었다. 이상의 연구결과는 몇몇 선행연구(특히 Suls와 동료학자들)의 결과와 같은 方向으로 나타났고 Piaget의 도덕판단 단계의 이론을 어느정도 지지해 주고 있다. 즉, 유치원 아동은 제2단계인 성인기준에 동조하는 단계에 있으나, 국민학교 2학년 아동은 제4단계 즉 동기존중단계에 있음이 발견되었다. Piaget는 이 제4단계를 10~14세로 잡고 있는데 본연구에서는 평균 8.3세에 이미 이 단계에 도달하였다. 이는 앞으로 더 연구되어야 할 문제를 제시해 준다.;The purpose of this study was to investigate how children utilize intention, damage and social consequence information in their moral judgment. the sample was drawn from two age groups: 40 kindergarteners and second graders consisted of equal numbers of boys and girls. The average ages are 5.5 years and 8.3 years old respectively. On the basis of the findings in the previous studies, three hypotheses were established to examine the influences of the main variables in children's moral judgment. Hypothesis 1 : The moral judgment of the kindergarteners will be based on the social consequences of a certain behavior. Hypothesis 2 : The moral judgment of the second graders will be based on the intention cues of the original actor. Hypothesis 3 : The degrees of damage resulted from a certain act will influence more on the second graders than on the kindergarteners in their moral judgment. In order to test the above three hypotheses, a story which describes a daily playing situation of children was developed. This story, then, was modified into eight versions so that intention, damage and social consequences information can vary. Two levels of intention, two levels of damage and two levels of social consequences are combined each other to compose each of the eight stories. That is, each story included one original actor (boy for boys, and girl for girls) and his or her younger brother(or sister), intention (either good or bad), damage(either small or large), and father's(or mother's) response. To help children understand the story better, a series of eight cartoon like pictures were drawn to show the children while reading the stories by the investigator. Reading and showing each of the eight stories and its corresponding picture to each child individually the investigator asked the child two questions. First question was to answer whether the original actor was good or bad. Second question was to indicate how good or bad the original actor was. For the second question, an answer sheet which includes seven points scale with corresponding faces to show the degrees of goodness ana badness was provided. This scale ranges from very good to very bad on the seven points scale. The answer then were converted to the scores of 7 points for very good and I point for very bad. The results were analyzed by 2 (grades) × 2 (intentions) × 2 (damages) × 2 (social consequences) ANOVA with repeated measures. All of the three hypotheses were accepted at the P<.01 level. The findings are summarized as follows: 1. The kindergarteners whose mean age was 5.5 years old obtained mean score of 4.86 on the 7 points scale when the parent's responses were good and mean score of 2.05 when the parent's responses were bad regardless of the other two variables included in the stories. On the contrary, the second graders whose mean age was 8.3 years old obtained mean score of 3.36 when the parent's responses were good and 2.99 when they are bad. The higher the score on the seven points scale, the better judgment of the original actor is indicated. This result confirms the first hypothesis at the 1 per cent level. 2. The second graders obtained mean score of 4.45 when the original actor had a good intention and mean score of 1.90 when he(or she) had a bad intenton, while the kindergarteners obtained mean of 3.68 and 3.22 in the respective case. This implies that the second graders use intention cues more importantly in their moral judgment, while the kindergarteners ignores them. This result confirms the second hypothesis at the 1 per cent level. 3. When the damage information was concerned, the kindergarteners rated the original actor with mean of 3.63 when the damage was small and 3.28 when it was large. This implies that the damage information does not affect the kindergarteners' moral judgment at all. However, the second graders rated the original actor with mean score of 3.55 when the damage was small and 2.80 when it was large. It is indicated that the damage information can play an important role in the moral judgment for the second graders. The third hypothesis was also confirmed at the 5 per cent level.
Fulltext
Show the fulltext
Appears in Collections:
교육대학원 > 유아교육전공 > Theses_Master
Files in This Item:
There are no files associated with this item.
Export
RIS (EndNote)
XLS (Excel)
XML


qrcode

Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.

BROWSE