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한국여성의 지방정치참여 확대 연구

한국여성의 지방정치참여 확대 연구
Other Titles
(A) study on the enlargement of Korean woman's political participation
Issue Date
정책과학대학원 공공정책학전공
이화여자대학교 정책과학대학원
Historically the officialization of women's participation in politics has not been long happened. Women started to participate in politics as voters since 1920 and in most of the countries they could obtain their right to vote by the 1940s. In Korea although there have been an improvement of women's social status and progress through the policy about the women of government and that of the United Nations after the 1980s, there is still low women's participation in politics. Currently in the Provincial Council the proportion of women is 4.2%, while in the Elementary Assembly is 1.6%(the average of the year 1991-1998 of the local election results). This proportion is an increasing trend at the moment in comparison to the past. However it does not even reach half of the average rate of the international assembly women, which is 13.8%. The Gender Empowerment Measure of the World investigated by the UNDP in 2001 shows that Korea ranked 61st out of 64 countries which responded to the investigation. This reveals that Korea is a politically backward country where the women's participation in politics has not improved in comparison to their participation in the economy, which is 48.3% and the increasing rate of their education over the years. This year, 2002, there will be held the 3rd mutual local elections and the 16th presidential election. It has been 11 years since the local self-government started with expectation and anxiety crying out for living politics. Together with the local self-government the most attracted area was the women's participation in politics. An expansion of the women's participation in the local self-government was expected by the fact that the essential issues will be dealt with by that local polity are familiar with women. The local elections elect more people than the general election and women are less disadvantageous in terms of campaign expenses and election campaigns which facilitate women who relatively lack of political experiences to launch themselves into politics. This paper will focus on how to make more woman participate in politics bringing up the problem of low women's participation in politics as stated above. Therefore this will emphasize on the relationship between the election system and the women's participation in politics as a proposal of extension of women's political representation thereby comparing the election system of the local assembly in the other countries. This also examines the French Parity Law in particular as an alternative model since it helped France to increase the women's political representation. As a result of the study, there are 4 reasons for low women's participation in the local assembly. First, although the proportional representation system that distributes 30% of the seats of the assembly to women in the Political Party Law was introduced in 2000, the election system has not assured the women's representation over the years. Second, there was absolutely small number of women who want to stand as candidates for the National Assembly as well as the local assembly. Third, there is a lack of the perception of female politicians by voters and the political activities of the organization for women were not well prepared. Fourth, the support from the political parties was very passive. Having said that, some proposals for such a political reality can be suggested. First, as under the current small electoral district system, it is not easy for a female candidate to win. Therefore a medium, large size electoral district system and the proportional system with a method of the party list are needed. Second, in march, 2000 the Political Party Law was amended in a way that women should be recommended publicly in 30% of the seats of the proportional representation in the local district and 50% of the seats of the Provincial Council. However, as this is not a definite binding clause, it needs to be changed as a compulsory clause. And it needs to be provided for in the law the law that the female's recommendation order should be crossed in the Party List. The Parity Law, which helped the French women's political representation to expand as a prescription of falling behind of women's politics, gives some suggestions far progress of Korean women's politics and they are as follows. First, the fact that the pursuit of women's policy was pressured in the political area in France was because the women's political influence has increased. Therefore in order to become a significant organization politically women should be able to influence on politics with votes. The women's voices can not be ignored in the political area when the poll rate of women appears higher than that of men in every elections. Second, in France, women who gained an experience in the local politics and made a conspicuous figure moved on to challenge the election of the Chamber of Deputies. In this respect there should be female candidates for the local politics with more interests. And the women's attitude towards women should be changed. Third, the president Francois Mitterand developed the women's policy with worrying about women's votes and promised them a quota with a party platform. In this respect the parties should recommend many women as candidates by remembering the characteristics of the local politics that it is where new politicians are cultivated. Fourth, in France feminists have made significant efforts within the parties and the country for establishing the Parity Law. Therefore the communities for women should work together systematically and make efforts to form a systematic and advantageous atmosphere that has the substance such as an amendment of the Election Law far the women's participation in politics.
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