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한국전통사상에서의 효개념에 관한 연구

Title
한국전통사상에서의 효개념에 관한 연구
Other Titles
(A) study of filial piety in Chosen era
Authors
오세정
Issue Date
1996
Department/Major
교육대학원 국민윤리교육전공
Keywords
한국전통사상효개념filial piety
Publisher
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
본 논문은 朝鮮時代에 修身書로서 보급되었던 <孝經>, <明心寶鑑>, <小學>, <三綱行實圖>, <童蒙先習>, <擊蒙要訣>의 분석을 통해 儒敎思想의 根本德이라 할 수 있는 孝思想이 어떤 형태로 기능했는지를 검토하고, 나아가서 韓國社會에서 孝思想의 현대적 의의를 모색하려는 것이다. 性理學 受容을 계기로 朝鮮社會의 社會的 價値體系와 規範體系의 핵심은 三綱五倫의 질서로 확립되었다. 따라서 朝鮮時代 敎育의 핵심은 明倫에 있었으며, 孝思想은 그 중심이 되었다. 三國時代부터 필수과목으로 다루어진 <孝經> 에서는 孝를 人倫의 근본적인 德으로 규정하였으며, 孝를 個別的인 가정윤리로부터 普遍的인 社會規範, 政治的 敎化의 원리로까지 확대하고 있다 <明心寶鑑>은 朝鮮時代에 편찬된 書籍들과는 달리 孝行篇에 있어서도 因果論的인 입장에서 설명되었다. 朝鮮社會에 있어서 실제적으로 가장 큰 영향을 끼쳤던 <小學> 의 明倫篇에서, 父子之親을 밝힘에 있어서는 어버이를 섬기는 禮, 자식으로 서 지켜야할 禮, 부모의 命을 따르는 禮, 사랑하고 공경하는 禮, 잘못을 諫하는 禮, 병환시 모시는 禮, 몸을 삼가는 禮, 제사를 지내는 禮, 孝와 不孝의 道에 관하여 설명하고 있다. <小學>이 士大夫 이상의 지배층에 의해 주도된 것에 비하여 <三綱行實圖> 는 民間生活을 啓蒙하려는 의도에서 편찬된 것이다. 孝子篇의 내용은 자식의 부모에 대한 일방적이고 무조건적인 孝行을 의무로 규정하여 정당화하였다. 初學敎育의 深化를 위해 저술된 <童蒙先習> 은 五倫에 근간을 두고 忠孝를 중시하였으며, 이를 실행하는 데 공헌했다. 栗谷의 著書인 <擊蒙要訣> 의 事親章에서는 孝의 원리와 孝行의 구체적인 방법을 서술하여 이론과 현실을 조화시키려고 하였다. 위의 교재들에서 공통적으로 주장하는 孝思想은, 첫째, 孝의 실천근 거는 報恩에 두고 있으므로 孝는 자식의 道理이며 父子關係는 끊어질 수 없는 것임을 명백히 하였다. 둘째, 孝道의 方法을 요약하면 恭敬. 奉養, 後嗣, 喪祭禮, 立身揚名 등을 들 수 있다. 셋째, 孝는 第一의 倫理規範으로써 역할을 하였다. 즉 根本德인 孝를 실천하면 기타의 德들도 달성할 수 있다.;Thorough the analysis of 「Hyokyong(孝經)」, 「Myungshimbogam(明心寶鑑)」, 「Sohak(小學)」, 「Samganghangshildo(三綱行實圖)」, 「Dongmongsunseup(童蒙先習)」 and 「Gyekmongyogyul(擊蒙要訣)」, this dissertation will try to examine the ways in which the idea of filial piety, the fundamental value of the Confucianism, functioned. Progressing further, it will try to grope for the modernistic significance of the idea of filial piety in the Korean society. From the reception of Metaphysics, the core of the Chosen society's social value system and the norm system was established through the order of three bonds and five moral values. Consequently, the focus of education in the Chosen Era lied in enlightment of moral values inside of which was the idea of filial piety. In 「Hyokyung(孝經)」, being regarded as required subject ever since the period of Three States, filial piety has been ordained as the basic virtue, and 「Hyokyung(孝經)」 expanded it from being just a particular family ethics into a universal social norm and principle political edification. Different from other books compiled during the Chosen Era, 「Myungshimbogam(明心寶鑑)」 was explained in a cause & effect perspective in the volume on filial piety. In the volume of enlightenment of maral values 「Sohak(小學)」, the most effectual book during the Chosen society, propriety of being filial to parents, propriety which should be kept by the children, propriety of following parental dictations, propriety on love and respect, propriety of admonishing faults, propriety of attending parents in illness, propriety of keeping the body discreet, propriety of performing religious services, and diffrentiateion of what is being filial to parents and what is not are explained in order to clarify the relationship between parents and children. In contrast to 「Sohak(小學)」 which was lead by the ruling class above the persons of high birth level, 「Samganghangshildo(三綱行實圖)」 was compiled in order to enlighten the civil class people. The content of the volume on filial son, unilateral and unconditional action of filial piety was justified by it being ordained as an obligation. Written in order to deepen the rudimentary education, 「Dongmongsunseup(童蒙先習)」 had basis in the five moral values and valued loyalty and filial piety. In doing so it contributed to carrying them out in action. The chapter on relationship which is in the book 「Gyekmongyogyul(繫蒙要訣)」 written by Yulgok(栗谷) tried to harmonize theory and reality by describing the principle of filial piety and the concrete explanations on the acts of filial piety. What all of the above books share in common in relation to the idea of filial piety is that, first, because the basis for the practicing of filial piety lies in gratitude, filial piety is a duty of the children and the relationship between parents and children can never be broken. Second, the methods of filial piety can be summarized by respect, support, succession of family name, propriety of funeral and religious service, and success and fame to just to mention a few. Third, the filial piety acted as the prime moral norm. In other words, by carrying out the filial piety, the fundemental virtue, one can also achieve other virtues.
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