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大韓帝國末期 天主敎의 敎育·實業振興論

Title
大韓帝國末期 天主敎의 敎育·實業振興論
Other Titles
On the thought of education and industry of the catholic church during the last years of the Korean empire : centering around comments of the Kyunghyang daily news
Authors
黃明淑
Issue Date
1985
Department/Major
대학원 한국학과
Keywords
대한제국말기천주교교육실업진흥론한국학
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
本 硏究는 大韓帝國末期, 1906年에서 1910年까지 天主敎의 機關紙인 京鄕新聞 論調 分析을 통해서, 天主敎의 敎育振興論과 實業振興論을 살펴보고, 國權恢復을 위한 愛國啓蒙運動에 있어서의 天主敎의 역할과 그 歷吏的 性格을 究明하는데 目的을 두었다. 本 硏究는 먼저 序論에서 問題意識을 밝히고, 導入部인 「Ⅱ. 時代的 背景」에서는 大韓帝國末期의 政治狀況을 槪觀하고 天主敎의 敎勢發展과 京鄕新聞의 發刊 및 그 趣旨를 다루었다. 大韓帝國末期의 政治狀況은 乙巳5條約으로 인한 國權喪失의 危機意識 속에서 日帝의 植民地化政策에 抵抗하는 國權恢復運動이 일어나고 있었다. 이 運動은 武力鬪爭으로 速決을 指向한 義兵運動과 敎育과 實業에 의한 實力培養을 先行하고 時期를 기다려서 一擧에 國權恢復을 이루려는 愛國啓蒙運動의 두 方向으로 나타났다. 이러한 時代的 狀況 속에서 天主敎에서는 愛國啓蒙運動의 一環으로 純한글版의 週刊紙 『京鄕新聞』을 機關紙로 發行하여 國權恢復運動의 터전을 마련하고자 活動하였음을 論證하였다. 「Ⅲ. 天主敎의 敎育振興論」에서는 敎育指標, 敎育內容, 敎育活動으로 區分하여 다루었다. 이 時期의 天主敎의 敎育指標는 自强을 통해 國權恢復을 이룩하려는데 力點을 두었다. 그리고 이러한 敎育指標가 達成되기 위해서 天主敎는 무엇보다도 「全國民敎育」 즉 全國民이 敎育을 받아야 함을 强調하였으며, 동시에 愛國心 鼓吹를 통한 自立精神을 涵養하는 敎育이 이루어져야 한다고 하였다. 天主敎의 敎育內容은 대체로 다음과 같았다. 첫째로 天主敎는 우리 民族의 在來 傳統文化를 保存하는 土臺 위에서 女性敎育의 必要性을 主張하고 있다. 둘째로 天主敎는 藝體能敎育을 통해 愛國精神을 鼓吹시켜야 한다고 主張하였다. 세째로 民族의 自立精神을 昻場하기 위해 精神敎育을 主張하였다. 즉 日帝가 植民地化하기 위한 民族抹殺同化政策에 반대하는 立場에서 國文敎育 및 國史敎育과 倫理敎育을 張調하였다. 天主敎의 敎育活動은 神學校 敎育과 -般學校 敎育으로 區分하였으며, 一般學校 敎育은 1905年 以前과 以後로 나누어 살펴보았다. 「Ⅳ. 天主敎의 實業振興論」에서는 實業發展論議, 農·商工業發展論, 實業活動狀況으로 區分하여 살펴보았다. 實業發展論議는 크게 收取制度의 改善 및 自立心, 새로운 實業의 開拓, 實業敎育, 貯蓄과 勳勞를 强調하는 것으로 나타났다. 또한 天主敎에서는 經濟的 自立으로써 自强을 통한 國權恢復을 위해서 여러가지 方法提示와 함께 農·商工業의 發展을 强調하였다. 天主敎에서는 農業을 가장 重要한 基幹産業으로 간주하고 이를 進步·發展시키기 위해 科學的 營農方法, 荒蕪地開拓과 土地保存, 植木의 奬勵등이 主張되었다. 한편 國家가 富强하기 위해서는 農業과 함께 商工業이 發展되어야 한다고 보았으며, 商工業의 發展을 위해 商術, 道路整備와 鐵道敷設, 會社設立 등 여러가지 方法을 提示하고 있다. 이렇게 天主敎의 實業發展論議나 農·商工業發展論은 비교적 活發히 擧論되고 있었으나, 實業活動은 크게 부각되지 않고 있다. 天主敎의 實業活動은 韓佛條約 以後 비교적 活發히 展開되었으며, 대표적인 天主敎 實業活動은 出版事業, 實業學校設立, 地域社會開發事業 등으로 나타나고 있다. 그리고 結論에서는 本 硏究를 小括하고 天主敎의 敎育·實業振興論이 國權恢復을 위한 自强의 方法으로 展開된 것이었으며, 이는 當時의 歷史的 條件 下에서 간절한 民族的 課題로써 필요한 것이었음에 그 歷史的 意義가 크게 돋보임을 究明하였다.;The purpose of this thesis is as follows: t o research on the thought of both education and industry of the Catholic Church through analyzing the comments of the Kyunghyang Daily News, its bulletin; and to clarify the role and the historical character of the Catholic Church in a patriotic enlightement movement for the recovery of national rights. In the introduction this thesis is dealt with the motive of handling this subject. In chapter Ⅱ: 'Its historical background' this thesis survey not only the expansion of the Catholic Church, but also it comment the publication and the purpose of the Kyunghyang Daily News. Considering the political situation in the last years of the Korean Empire, there was a movement for the recovery of national rights at a crisis of the loss of national rights resulted from the Eulsa treaty against the Japanese policy for colonization. This movement continued in two kinds of directions : 1. armed strife heading for abtaining prompt results , 2. patriotic enlightenment campaign for the recovery of national rights gradually through promoting educational activities and industry. This thesis argued that the Catholic Church Strived to build up the ground for the patriotic enlightenment campaign through publicating the Kyunghyang Daily News , then a weekly newspaper, which was written only in Korean. In Chapter Ⅲ: 'the promotion theory on education of the Catholic Church' we divide it into 3 sections: 1. educational goal, 2. educational contents, 3. and educational activities. The educational goal of the Catholic Church in those days was laid emphasis on achieving the recovery of national rights through strenuous efforts . To such an educational goal the Catholic Church emphasized that the nation should be educated. At the same time it argued that the education to cultivate independent spirit should be accomplished through inspiring patriotism into the heart of the people. The educational contents of the Catholic·Church were roughly as follows: 1. It emphasized the necessity of the education of the women, taking up the position that the conventional Korean culture should be preserved. 2. It argued that the patriotism should be inspired through art. education. 3 . It advocated moral education in order to raise up the national independent spirit . In other words it emphasized Korean language education, historical education, and ethical education against Japanese policy for colonization. The activities of the Catholic Church were surveyed into three parts : 1. education of th Theological Seminary, 2. education of the general schools before 1905, 3. and education of the general schools after 1905. In chapter Ⅳ . ' the promotion theory on industry of the Catholic Church' this thesis is also divide it into three sect ions : 1. discussion of industrial developments, 2. development theory of agriculture , commerce and industry, 3. the state of industrial activities . In ' the discussion of industrial developments' it found that the Catholic Church laid emphasis on the improvement of incoming system, independent spirit , development of new industry, saving, and work. In addition to them the Catholic Church not only proposed many kinds of methods for the recovery of national rights through economic independence, but also it emphasized the development of agriculture , commerce and industry. The Catholic Church thought of agriculture as the key industry, and so it emphasized scientific methods of agriculture , reclamation of waste land, preservation of land and planting trees to develop agriculture . Besides it laid importance on commerce and industry as well as agriculture to promote the wealth and power of a nation. To develop commerce and industry it proposed many kinds of methods as follows: ways of business, road building and repairs , construction of railroad, and establishing a company. 'Discussion of industrial developments' and 'development theory of agriculture , commerce and industry' were dealt comparatively in detail , but industrial activities were commented of no importance. After the treatry between Korea and France industrial activities were carried out effectively . And the important industrial activities of the Catholic Church were as follows: publicating , establishing business schools, and development of a community. Finally , in the conclusion, it summarized this thesis and then on the thought of education and industry of the Catholic Church is spread in the way of strenuous efforts for the recovery of national rights. This is in need of the earnest national work under the historic situation in those days, therefore its historic meaning is outstanding.
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