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유아교육기관의 질에 따른 유아의 문해행동

Title
유아교육기관의 질에 따른 유아의 문해행동
Other Titles
YOUNG CHILDREN'S LITERACY BEHAVIOR ACCORDING TO THE QUALITY OF EARLY EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS
Authors
김영신
Issue Date
1995
Department/Major
대학원 유아교육학과
Keywords
유아교육기관유아문해행동
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
본 연구의 목적은 유아교육기관의 질과 문해환경의 질과의 관계를 살펴보고, 유아교육기관의 질적 환경에 따라 유아의 문해행동에 차이가 있는지를 알아보는 것이다. 이와 같은 연구 목적에 따라 다음과 같은 연구 문제를 설정하였다. 1. 유아교육기관의 질과 문해환경의 질과는 어떤 관계가 있는가? 2. 유아교육기관의 질에 따라 유아의 문해행동 빈도에 차이가 있는가? 2-1. 유아교육기관의 질에 따라 유아의 탐색 행동 빈도에 차이가 있는가? 2-2. 유아교육기관의 질에 따라 유아의 읽기 행동 빈도에 차이가 있는가? 2-3. 유아교육기관의 질에 따라 유아의 쓰기 행동 빈도에 차이가 있는가? 3. 유아교육기관의 질에 따라 각 흥미영역에서 나타나는 유아의 문해행동 빈도에 차이가 있는가? 4. 유아교육기관의 질에 따라 각 흥미영역에서 나타나는 유아의 문해행동 내용에 차이가 있는가? 본 연구 대상은 서울시에 위치한 2개 유치원의 만 5세반 유아 60명이다. 유아교육기관 여덟 곳을 1차로 선정하여 기관의 질과 문해환경의 질을 측정한 후, 질적으로 가장 차이가 나는 두 곳의 유치원 4학급을 2차로 선정하였다. 선정된 4학급의 유아를 대상으로 질문지를 통해 가정의 문해환경을 조사하여 질적으로 우수한 기관의 유아(여아 15명, 남아 15명)와 질적환경이 열악한 기관의 유아(여아 15명, 남아 15명)를 최종적으로 선정하였다. 관찰은 자유놀이시간에 시간표집법(5분)과 사건표집법을 병행하여 한 유아당 30회 이루어졌다. 연구 도구는 유아교육기관의 질을 평정하기 위한 도구로 Harms와 Clifford (1980)가 제작한 유아교육 환경 평정척도(ECERS: Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale)를 사용하였고, 문해환경의 질을 평가하기 위해서는 Loughlin과 Martin(1987)의 문해환경 평가척도(The Survey of Displayed Literacy Stimuli)를 사용하였다. 또한 문해행동 관찰은 Heald-Taylor(1586)의 문해행동 관찰 체크리스트(Sample Time and Event Sampling Checkist)와 Morrow(1990)의 문해행동 체계, 그리고 강인구(1995)의 문해행동 유형을 기초로 수정하여 사용하였다. 수집된 자료는 빈도, 백분율, 상관관계, t검증, Welch-Aspin검증에의해 분석하였다. 본 연구의 결과는 다음과 같다. 1. 유아교육기관의 질과 문해환경의 질과는 높은 상관이 있었다. 즉 질적으로 우수한 유아교육기관은 풍부한 문해자료를 구비하고 있었고, 유아에게 비교적 적절한 문해환경을 제시하였다. 2. 유아교육기관의 질에 따라 유아의 총 문해행동 빈도에 차이가 있었다. 즉 질적으로 우수한 유아교육기관에서 유아의 문해행동이 더 많이 일어났다. 이를 구체적으로 살펴보면, 유아교육기관의 질에 따라 유아의 탐색 행동과 읽기 행동은 통계적으로 유의한 차이가 없었으나, 쓰기 행동에 있어서는 상집단과 하집단간에 통계적으로 유의한 차이가 나타났다. 이를 각 유형에 따라 범주별로 살펴보면, 탐색 행동과 읽기 행동의 범주에 있어서는 상집단과 하집단 간에 통계적으로 유의한 차이가 없었으나, 쓰기 행동의 범주인 낱말 쓰기와 문장 쓰기는 통계적으로 유의한 차이를 보여 상집단의 유아에게서 더 많이 나타났다. 3. 유아교육기관의 질에 따라 각 흥미영역에서 나타난 유아의 문해행동 빈도에 차이가 있었다. 상집단의 경우에는 조작적 활동 영역을 제외한 언어 영역, 미술활동 영역, 컴퓨터 영역, 수·과학활동 영역, 극화놀이 영역, 음률활동 영역, 적목놀이 영역 등 교실 전반에 걸쳐 문해행동이 나타난 반면, 하집단에서의 문해행동은 언어 영역과 미술활동 영역, 그리고 수·과학활동 영역에 국한되어 나타났다. 4. 유아교육기관의 질에 따라 각 흥미영역에서 나타난 유아의 문해행동 내용에 차이가 있었다. 즉 상집단에서 보다 다양한 내용의 문해행동이 나타났다.;The purpose of this study is to examine the relation between the quality of early education institutions and the quality of literacy environment, and to investigate the existence of difference of young children's literacy behavior according to the quality of environment in early education institutions. Subjects of study related to the above study purpose were as follows: 1. What is the relation between the quality of early education institutions and literacy environment ? 2. Is there any difference in the literacy behavior's frequency of young children according to the quality of early education institutions ? 2-1. Is there any difference in inquiring behavior's frequency of young children according to the quality of early education institutions? 2-2. Is there any difference in reading behavior's frequency of young children according to the quality of early education institutions? 2-3. Is there any difference in writing behavior's frequency of young children according to the quality of early education institutions? 3. Is there any difference in literacy behavior's frequency of young children to be happened at each interest center according to the quality of early education institutions ? 4. Is there any difference in the contents of young children's literacy behavior to be happened at each interest center according to the quality of early education institutions ? The objects of this study were sixty young children of five years old __ who were in two kindergartens in Seoul. Eight early education institutions were selected and then quality of each selected institutions and its literacy environment was investigated. Four classes in two kindergartens which have the biggest qualitative difference were selected secondly. Home literacy environment of young children belonging to the selected four classes was examined through questionnaire to their parent, and young children belonging to the qualitative superior institution (fifteen children by each sex) and young children belonging to the qualitative inferior institution (fifteen children by each sex) were finally selected through interviews with their teachers. Thirty times observation by each young children was performed during free-play lesson through time sampling(for five minutes by each observation) and event sampling. ECERS (Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale) established by Harmes Clifford in 1980 was used as tool to evaluate the quality of early education institutions and the literacy environment's evaluation index of Loughlin and Martin (The Survey of Displayed Literacy Stimuli, 1987) was used as tool to evaluate the quality of literacy environment. In addition, the checklist of literacy behavior observation by Heard-Taylor (Sample Time and Event Sampling Checklist, 1986), the literacy behavior system by Morrow (1990) and the types of literacy behavior by In-Koo Kang (1994) were used as tools to observe literacy behavior through a little modification. Collected data were analyzed by frequency, percentage, 1 correlation, t-test and Welch-Aspin test. Analysis results of this study were as follows: 1. The quality of early education institution was closely related to the quality of literacy environment. That is the qualitative superior early education institution has abundant literacy materials and furnished young children with appropriate literacy environment in comparison. 2. There was differencee in young children's literacy behavior of infant according to quality of early education institutions. That is young children's literacy behaviors happened still more in qualitative / superior institution. To put it concretely, there was not statistical difference in frequency of young children showing inquiring behavior and reading behavior, but there was statistical difference in writing behavior and total literacy behavior between the superior group and the inferior group. There was difference in the types of literacy behavior according to the quality of early education institutions. There was not statistical difference in types of infant inquiring behavior and reading behavior between the superior group and the inferior group, but in case of writing of words and sentences, a type of writing behavior, there was statistical difference because it happened to infant in the superior group still more. 3. There was difference in frequency of young children's literacy behavior to be happened at each interest center according to the quality of early education institutions. Literacy behavior happened at the whole interest center in case of the superior group. On the other hand, it happened at just limited interest center in case of the inferior group. That is literacy behavior of the superior group happened at center of language, plan, art, computer, mathematics & science, drama play, music and block according to priority except operation center, but most of literacy behavior being happened at the inferior group was concentrated at center of language, art and mathematics & science. 4. There was difference in the contents of young children's literacy behavior to be happened at each interest center according to the quality of early education institutions. To put it concretely, in case of inquiring behavior, seven kinds in the superior group and three kinds in the inferior, in case of reading behavior, twenty-four kinds in the superior group and eight kinds in the inferior, and in case of writing behavior, twenty-six kinds were observed in the superior group and seven kinds were observed in the inferior group. Therefore, it was found out that the contents of various literacy behavior happened still more at the qualitative superior early education institutions.
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