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은행인수, 합병의 현황 및 사례분석

Title
은행인수, 합병의 현황 및 사례분석
Other Titles
Status and Case Analysis on Merger & Acquisition of Banks
Authors
姜昇希
Issue Date
2003
Department/Major
정책과학대학원 산업경제학전공
Keywords
은행인수합병사례분석
Publisher
이화여자대학교 정책과학대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
한국의 IMF 외환 위기 이후 한국의 은행산업은 1997년 12월, IMF 지원 금융을 합의한 이후 정부주도의 구조조정으로 양적으로나 질적으로 대변혁을 경험했다. 은행 구조조정을 통해 과거 고성장 과정에서 장기간 누적돼온 비효율을 제거하는 계기를 마련하고, 국내 은행산업의 건전성, 수익성, 생산성을 향상시키는 데 기여를 하는 동시에 외자유치, 시장개방 등으로 국내 은행산업에 외자계가 급부상 하면서 국내은행들의 위상이 크게 약화되었다. 한국판 빅뱅이라 일컬어지는 금융산업의 구조조정과 함께 IMF와의 합의에 따른 부실 금융기관의 구조조정, 금융기관의 퇴출제도, 부실채권의 조기정리, 국제기준에 부합하는 금융기관 건전감독기준의 마련, 금융산업에 대한 진입제한완화 등이 진행되고 있는 실정이다. 또한 은행업무 영역의 확대에 따른 대형화나 특수분야의 전문화를 통해 경쟁력을 강화하여야 하며 이를 위해 인수나 합병을 이용한 대형화가 활발히 논의되고 있다. 본 연구는 은행합병에 관해 개선될 수 있는 문제점을 지적하고 이에 은행 산업의 경쟁력과 효율성을 지향하고자 하는데 그 목적이 있다. 은행의 합병을 연구하기에 앞서 각종 연구논문, 신문기사, 인터넷 등을 통한 자료조사로 우선 은행합병에 관한 이론적 동기와 효과 등을 고찰하고 외국과 국내 은행 합병사례를 분석하여 국내 은행합병 방향에 관한 내용을 검토하였다. 은행합병의 부작용을 최소화하고 시너지 효과를 극대화하기 위해서는 합병 대상은행을 신중하게 선택하고 치밀한 합병 추진전략이 필요하다. 최적 합병 대상은행 및 합병 시기의 선택, 그리고 합병 추진계획 및 중장기적 전략의 수립 등 합병과 관련된 철저한 노력과 시행이 요구된다. 아무리 좋은 전략도 이를 실현시키기 위한 사람들의 노력이 따르지 않는다면 성공할 수 없다. 따라서 무엇보다도 양 은행의 조직원들이 각자의 강점과 약점을 인정하고, 통합은행이라는 새로운 은행의 출범주인이 된다는 자세로 자발적인 협조와 융화를 구할 때 합병은 성공적일 수 있을 것이다.;After financial aid agreement from IMF in December 1997, Korean banking industry has experienced great changes in terms of quantity and quality lead by government restructuring. Through banking restructuring, the industry has made chance to remove long-term inefficiencies that was accumulated during past fast growth stage and helped to improve local banking industry's cleanness, profitability and productivity. Simultaneously, local banks status has been weakened by foreign investment and market opening as multinational banks enter local market. Active merger between large banks is to gain competitiveness by enlargement and can enjoy economic effects by scale, scope of economy and management rationalization. The reason for discussion of merger and enlargement of local banks is that leading bank is needed to drive banking industry reform and confront multinational banks in local and international financial market. The act of leading bank is to activate other banks changes in competitiveness and efficiency. So, the meaning of leading bank is not focused in size but also in its quality. In this research, it will define the merger between banks and do case study on similar cases in other major countries. Also, based on this, to analyze the effect of bank merger, it compared profitability, cost efficiency and risk of bank before and after the merger. As a result, profitability has relatively increased after the merger but also the risk had increase simultaneously. Especially in cost efficiency analysis, the cost had increased in the period before the merger due to human resource reduction lead by government and this caused increase in restructuring cost. Merger bank should look straight that this was organized to solve over supply and insolvency. So, it should put operation weight on risk and prepare solutions on loss of efficiency due to conflict between organizations and organizations enlargement. Also, it should concentrate on reducing side effects like customer service quality, perplexity of operation loan and shrinkage business on small enterprise. Bank merger was recognized as important tool to gain competitiveness in banking industry by enlargement. However, there are not many reports that prove merger gained efficiency by enlargement even in foreign cases. In addition, since financial system is not so advanced like other advanced countries, bank merger can cause negative results. To minimize side effect and maximize synergy of bank merger, choosing merger bank is one key job and exact merger strategic plan in needed. Thorough effort and execution is needed for merger like ideal merger bank, period, plan and long-term strategy. Although there was a clear and effective strategy, both bank clearly recognized that without all the hard work, it is difficult to achieve their goals. Accordingly, the management teams from both banks acknowledged both their strengths and weaknesses and agreed that only with mutual cooperation and dedication can the merger be successful.
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