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민화의 색채 표현 기법과 채색재료 연구

민화의 색채 표현 기법과 채색재료 연구
Other Titles
(The) Coloring Methods and the Materials in Min-wha
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교육대학원 미술교육전공
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
본 논문에서는 우리 겨레의 정서가 잘 드러나 있는 조선후기(약 1700~1850) 민화의 색채 표현 기법을 연구하였다. 민화는 대략 10 여 만점이 넘을 만큼 많이 그려진 데다가, 현존하는 조선조 민화들 중에는 주목할 만한 탁월한 작품들이 적지않게 보이고, 색채가 주는 장식적 효과와 상징적 효용성을 살려 실생활에 애용되었음이 잘 드러나고 있다. 여러 종류의 민화 중에서 색채사용이 두드러지는 화조도, 문자도, 책거리 그림, 산신도, 일월도를 연구대상으로 삼았다. 먼저 고대 고구려 고분벽화에서 볼 수 있듯이 오랫동안 우리의 전통적 사고 체계를 이루어왔던 음양오행설과 샤머니즘적 세계관이 민화의 색체계에 어떤 영향을 주었는지를 살펴보고, 민화나 민속상에 나타난 여러 색들이 이러한 사상적 바탕 위에서 어떤 상징적 의미를 가지는지 알아보았다. 또한 이러한 색들을 만들어 내기 위해서 쓰인 광물성 안료 및 식물성 안료등의 채색재료의 성분 및 특성을 살펴보았고, 아울러 그림의 채색기법과 밀접한 관련이 있는 종이(바탕재)를 비롯하여 표구, 아교(접착제) 등의 특징과 사용방법 등에 대해 검토하였다. 일반 서민들 뿐 아니라 상류계층에서도 민화를 즐겨 소장했던만큼 계층별로 선호되었던 민화들을 비교하여 앞에서 말한 채색기법이나 재료, 구성 등에서 계층별로 어떤 특징을 보이는지 살펴보았다. 본인의 논고는 앞으로 한국 채색화와의 연계속에서 보충되어야 할 과제로서 민화의 색채기법과 재료문제는 보다 세밀하게 재고찰되어야 하리라본다.;The purpose of this thesis is to raise the necessity of studying colors in Min-Wha, which has occupied a very critical part in the study of Korean traditional colors, and to attempt the research of that. The subject of this thesis is Korean Min-Wha that specially has had more important meaning in the study of Korean colored pictures. Min-Wha had drawn over 100,000 pieces until the late 19th century. And now we can find a lot of outstanding works though existing Min-Wha of Cho-son Dynasty era. Especially in coloring, most of them was drawn with 'original colors'. In this study, we examine the characteristics of colors in each work and the quality of pigments and dyes that are materials of coloring Min-Wha. And furthermore, the qualities and ways of using in paper and glue are considered. This kind of attempt has great importance to help students and professionals understand the 'epitome' in coloring of Min-Wha. Through the works, we can be sure of that they had been loved in people's common lives, making the best use of decorational and symbolic effects which are the results of different coloring. So, the main interests of this study is the color of Min-Wha. To make understand well this thesis has "The value of five colors", which is based on the idea of "Yin and Yang" and Shamanism in the prehistorical age. - These two ideas are the backgrounds of thoughts in coloring - And the methods of coloration to be seen in ancient frescos and Dan-chung are examined. Furthermore, this study contains some research about the meaning and purpose of using of 'colors to represent five different bearings', which we can find in folk-lore data of Korea. In the coloring methods of Min-Wha, the outlined characteristics and ireas of coloring are first described. Here are the characteristics of coloring method in Min-Wha. (1) The beauty in primary colors : to be seen in bright medium tone, expressing the feeling, sense and sensation with deep original color. (2) The beauty with fantasy : not just to present the object of coloring it self but to give some effects of catharsis through the coloration. (3) The beauty in the value of fine colors : to present with main colors in order to set up "cosmos" of colors in a picture. And we can find "the beauty of complementary colors and Black and White'' in Min-wha. There are two methods in the presentation of coloring in Min-wha, 'primary coloring tone' with five colors(red, blue, black, white and yellow) and 'medium coloring tone'. The former is very splendid and has strong effect of decoration with mineral pigments. This sort of method was used to luxuries for the royal family, higher government officials and nobles. For the latter, which was for ordinary people, vegitable dyes and a little quantity of mineral pigments were used. In the conclusion, the analysis of pigments and dyes, and the qualities of glue and different matrials for the ground of drawing are examined.
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