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이스라엘 농촌지역(키브츠) 공동체 교육에 대한 연구

Title
이스라엘 농촌지역(키브츠) 공동체 교육에 대한 연구
Other Titles
(A) Study on the community education of Kibbutz in Israel
Authors
李弼銀
Issue Date
1989
Department/Major
교육대학원 교육학전공종교교육분야
Keywords
이스라엘농촌공동체교육키브츠
Publisher
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
기존의 한국 사회에서는 3세대이상의 가족이 함께 살면서 나누던 공동체 의식이 현대에 핵가족화 되면서 자녀들은 공동체 의식을 배우지 못하는 가운데 성장하게 된다. 이에 이스라엘 집단 농촌인 키브츠의 집단생활을 통한 공동체 교육을 현 한국 사회에 교육에 연결하고자 하는데 논문을 초점을 갖추었다. 이와 같은 내용을 기술하기 위한 본 논문은 서론인 Ⅰ장에서는 연구의 목적 연구의 필요성 연구의 방법과 내용을 기술하였다. 제Ⅱ장에서는 공동체의 개념을 정리하였다. 공동체는 인간 상호간에 작용이 일어나는 소규모적이어야 하며 서로간의 행동의 변화가 일어나는 것을 의미한다. 신앙공동체는 예수그리스도를 표본으로 교회에 모인 인간들의 상호간의 행동의 변화가 일어나는 것을 의미한다. 제Ⅲ장에서는 공동체 교육을 코이노니아로 전제하고 이를 구약에서는 가정을 통한 부모로부터의 공동체 교육을 살펴보았고 신약에서는 초대교회를 통해 이루어지는 공동체 생활을 통한 교육을 살펴보았다. 제Ⅳ장에서는 뒷장에서 연구될 이스라엘 키브츠 교육에 앞서서 키브츠의 조직과 운영 기본 이념을 살펴보았다. 이스라엘은 집단 생활을 통하여 공동재산이고 사유재산이 인정되지 않으며 이는 남성의 가부장적 권위로부터의 탈피, 여성의 지위향상, 사회적 경제적 평등, 교육에서의 완전한 민주주의화를 그 기본 이념으로 하고 있다. 제Ⅴ장에서는 교육에 대하여 연구하였다. 키브츠의 어린이는 생후4일째 되는 날로부터 "어린이회"의 공식적인 회원이 되어서 고등학교 졸업때까지 소속되어 있게된다. 어린이들은 집단 생활을 통하여 공동체 교육을 배우게 되는데 교육은 잘 훈련된 부모와 교사에 의하여 이루어지며 부모는 공식적인 교육과 부양에 대한 책임이 없게된다. 어린이들은 모든 생활필수품등을 키브츠로부터 공급 받기 때문에 어린이들은 그들의 부모로부터 경제적으로 완전히 독립하게 되고, 이는 기존의 부모 자녀간의 관계를 극복하여 순수한 사랑의 관계를 이룰 수 있게된다. 제Ⅵ장에서는 한국 교회 교육과 키브츠의 교육을 윗장까지의 연구를 토대로 비교 분석하였다. 제Ⅶ장에서는 전체적 내용을 총괄하여 결론을 다루었다.;Nowadays, we are severely exposed to the symptoms of the absence of education. Such factors as industrialization, increase of atomic family, evaluation of the individual based on academic records in schooling, and manual-oriented indoctrination in church education, may be deemed as the main causes of this problem. It can be safely said that, in this condition, our children can have few chances to develop the consciousness of community. As a community of faith which is responsible to proclaim the fact that the human beings all over the world are the children of God, the Christian church should find the way to break though this cul-de-sac. This thesis aims at suggesting the education of Kibbutz for an ideal model of church education in Korea, and providing the informations of the community education of Kibbutz. The contents of this thesis can be summarized as follows; In chapter 1, we have introduction. In Chapter 2 ,the concept of community. we try to define the concept, relating its sociological aspects and that of community of faith. In chapter 3, we survey the education of community of faith in the Bible: family education and that of Early Church, in the Old and New Testaments, respectively. In chapter 4, in preparation for analysis of the education of Kibbutz, we survey general conditions of Israel, agricultural society of country, and organization of Kibbutz. In chapter 5, we deal with the education of Israel generally and then that of Kibbutz. We analyze the philosophy, content, and structure of the education, and especially concentrate on the parent-children relations and nurse-children relation in Kibbutz. In chapter 6, we analyze the education of Kibbutz and that of community of faith through comparing them. We deal with the historical conditions which necessitates the education of community of faith. And we also search for the ways to apply curriculum, object, and teaching method of the community education of Kibbutz to church education in Korea. In chapter 7, we have the summary and conclusion of this thesis. The philosophy of the community education of Kibbutz lies in overcoming patriarchism, enhancing the status of woman, obtaining the social and economic equalities, and establishing democracy in education. This embodies itself in the expression of group education and a peculiar nursing system. In this nursing system, nurse or teacher of Kibbutz replaces parents in upbringing children. Therefore, the relations of parents with children transform itself from the traditional patronized one to the mutual loving care. And group education provides children with the opportunities to learn the consciousness of community naturally through their developmental stages, and results in the qualitative change in their lives, and causes them to be community-centered. We may sort out the aspects of the community education of Kibbutz which is applicable to church education in Korea. First, the spontaneous and active education of Kibbutz presents a striking contrast to the cram-oriented education of community of faith in Korea. In Kibbutz, the education is spontaneously done, regardless of evaluation of the individual. We may find some insights from this spontaneous education to amend our one-way teaching method. Second, while the education of Kibbutz is done through the every branches of lide, our education is limited to sundry School. If the authentic object of education of community of faith is to bring up the mature person who will be conductive to community, we should widen the scope of education from Sunday school to the whole congregational activities. Third, the characteristic of the education of Kibbutz is the education of the whole person. Therefore, Kibbutz is very careful in making curriculum and including the courses which aim the developing personality. We also need to modify our curriculum from narrow indoctrination of fragmentary informations to balanced education enabling personality development. Fourth, we should pay heed to community education. In Kibbutz, the community education enables children to learn the consciousness of community naturally through group activity. Admittedly, we also provide several community education programs in church, that is, youth camp, retreat, etc. But since these programs are so short-termed, and even scarsely provided that children can hardly develop the consciousness of community. To apply the education of Kibbutz to church education in Korean successfully, some efforts are expected to be made. I propose that K. N. C. C. or General Assemblies in Korea establish the Study Commission or Section Committee on the education of community of faith to provide the programs which enhance the quality of Sunday School teachers, and to modify the curriculum.
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