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만평(漫評)과 신문의 정치적 성향 연구
- 만평(漫評)과 신문의 정치적 성향 연구
- Other Titles
- A Study on Cartoons and Political Tendency Of Chosun Ilbo and Hangeorye Newspaper
- Issue Date
- 정책과학대학원 언론홍보학전공
- 이화여자대학교 대학원
- This study reviews the types of themes appeared on the newspaper cartoons of Chosun Ilbo and Hangeorye Newspaper that have mutually conflicting ideologies of conservative and progressive, respectively, and compared and analyzed the differences of people appearing on the cartoons and the description on the current president, and the difference of description to handle the same themes. Through this study, the attempt was made to clarify the political tendency of each newspaper company and relativity of the respective cartoons, and the following is the research result from it.
First, the result on the tendency of themes for cartoons on Chosun Ilbo and Hangeorye Newspaper was as follows. These two cartoons have the tendency of handling the political issues with 64.1%, and this is attributable to the characteristics of Korean newspapers that reflect the tendency of political papers in nature. While the cartoons that had the subject of politics and North Korean relationship showed similar figures for the two newspaper companies, the cartoons of Chosun Ilbo had almost twice as high ratio on economy and international diplomacy than that of Hangeorye cartoons. The most notable point from the theme types is the difference in ratio of the two newspaper companies that treat the society as the theme. From the cartoons of Chosun Ilbo, only 4.1% handled the ‘society’, and this is the lowest figure from the themes of main category of the cartoons of Chosun Ilbo. On the other hand, the ‘social’ issues for cartoons of Hangeorye had shown the second highest ratio (18.7%) following the political issues. Looking into the sub-category of ‘society’, ‘teacher’s labor union (3.2%), April 19 Movement (1.0%), crime (1.0%), Korea Student Association (1.0%), human right (2.1%), education (3.1%)’ and other contents have been selected as the theme of the cartoons of Hangeorye Newspaper while they were never mentioned as the subject of cartoons for Chosun Ilbo. This is attributable to the unique status and characteristics as well as the outcome that reflect the political tendency of Hangeorye Newspaper in Korean newspaper sector.
Second, in order to analyze the difference of personal types appearing on the cartoons of the two newspaper companies that have the political tendency of conservative and progressive, the four types of classification are made for the main subjects of the cartoons, gender of the persons appearing on the cartoons, gender of the main subject of the cartoons, and the political types appearing on the cartoons. In the event of main subject for the cartoons of Chosun Ilbo and Hangeorye Newspaper, ‘politician/politics circle’ had the highest weight (Chosun cartoons: 30.2%, Hangeorye cartoons: 30.2%), followed by the president/Blue House (Chosun cartoons: 26%, Hangeorye cartoons: 16.7%).
From the personnel group of people appearing on cartoons of Chosun Inbo and Hangeorye Newspaper, the highest ratio was for male (Chosun cartoons: 88.5%, Hangeorye cartoons: 67.7%). The case of woman alone appearing in the cartoons reached extremely small frequency from the entire cartoons (Chosun cartoons: 0%, Hangeorye cartoonsn: 1%). On the other hand, the cases of having both gender to appear at the same time was 6.3% for Chosun cartoons and 19.8% for Hangeorye cartoons. For the case of Hangeorye cartoons, the frequency of having both men and women in cartoons reached more than 3 times than that of Chosun cartoons.
For the gender for main action in the cartoons, the highest rate was for men (Chosun cartoons: 94.8%, Hangeorye cartoons: 79.2%). For Chosun cartoons, while there was not a single case of having women appeared as the main subject of the cartoons, there were 4.2% of the cases where the woman was the main subject for Hangeorye cartoons. In addition, for Chosun cartoons, it is less than 1% for displaying the men and women as the same subject for cartoons while Hangeorye cartoons had 10.4% for displaying men and women as same subject for action. The above result showed clearly the difference following the political tendency of the two newspaper companies. In the case of Chosun cartoons, it follows the conservative customs of cartoons in criticism and parody on the politics while Hangeorye cartoons attempted to make progressive works by breaking away from the unspoken rules and taboos together with the expansion of the scope of cartoons from the political issues to social issues.
Third, Chosun cartoons and Hangeorye cartoons all had the most on the parody and criticism on the current presidents. (Chosun cartoons: 64.4%, Hangeorye cartoons: 48.8%) Looking into the description on ‘current president’, three former presidents, Roh Tae-woo, Kim Dae-joong and Roh Moo-hyun, had the similar rate in their appearances both for Chosun cartoons or Hangeorye cartoons. One particular person within the category is the former president Kim Young-sam. Chosun cartoons or Hangeorye cartoons all had the former president Kim Young-sam on the cartoons the most from the 4 past presidents (Chosun cartoons: 44.8%, Hangeorye cartoons: 38.1%).
The former president Kim Young-sam was the person who was described positively throughout Chosun cartoons and Hangeorye cartoons from the 4 former presidents. However, such a positive description was mainly found from the ‘Chosun cartoons’, which has to be taken into consideration. Result of analysis that described the ‘current president’ of Chosun cartoons and Hangeorye cartoons, Chosun cartoons described the president positively for 27.6%, while Hangeorye cartoons described the president positively only by 4.8%. Looking into the ratio of cartoons that drew the current president in negative terms was 58.6% for Chosun cartoons and 76.1% for Hangeorye cartoons. This indicates that the cartoons of the two newspaper companies display substantial criticism on the current presidents. The two newspaper companies all had the incumbent president in the cartoons but the criticism of ‘situational description’, not the criticism on the president, was 13.8% (Chosun cartoons) and 19.1% (Hangeorye cartoons). As such, the description on the incumbent president showed the clear difference on president for support or criticism depending on the political tendency of each newspaper company.
Forth, a review was made by analyzing the difference of description of both newspaper cartoons on the same themes, and looked for the differences from the two newspaper companies’ cartoons that have contrasting political ideologies. The cartoons that had the consistent editorials on the same theme for both newspaper companies was about the half, 50.0%. Looking into the themes that had the same type of criticism was for politics with the highest frequency of 33.4%, followed by economy for 6.7% with social issues, international diplomacy and North Korean issues for 3.3%.
On the contrary, about 10% of entire cartoons had the contrasting criticism depending on the political tendency of these two newspaper companies. In addition, the cartoons with different focus for criticism on certain thesis took up 40%, and it was not so much that there was any clear contrast of opposition or consistent views on same issue by these two newspaper company cartoons. This may be interpreted as having each cartoonist who criticizes the political tendency with his/her own perspective on each issue regardless the political tendency on its cartoons. It is highly probable that for cartoonists to have different views on the same themes, and this may lead to the conclusion that they always follow the political tendency of the newspaper companies where they work for. This is attributable to the fact that the self-autonomy of the cartoonist is somewhat recognized within their profession.
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