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identifier* YYյ 0pYյ ǩXՔ XɵX @ pȨ An analysis of Mediating Effects and Moderating Effects of Volition Control working on S elf-Regulated Learning in Elementary Mathematics2015
Y YP!YtTŐYP YDoctorx Doctoral Thesis<In a knowledge based society of information of today, the ultimate goal of education is to enhance ability to start, control, and maintain learning oneself. In the past, teachers have taken entire responsibility for the whole process of teaching and learning. For example, the setting of like long and short term goals, specific activities, data services and distribution of time and so on.
But today, students as well as teachers are required to assume responsibility for the role of learning and this situation asks students to be self-regulated learners in goal setting, selection of strategy and checking the learning process to achieve their goal.
Self-regulated learning emphasizes how to control learners' behavior in terms of motivation and cognition in the learning process. Volition control works to maintain the first motivation of the attainment of their goal and to keep up effort and task performance in spite of distractions around them. The volition control takes effect differently depending on the areas of self-regulated learning, learning strategies and learners' motivation. As self-regulated learning has a positive role in motivation and academic achievement, the importance of self-regulation in the learning process is emphasized more. But volition control studies in mathematics learning are relatively small and related studies also handle partial sub-factors of volitional control.
So, we need to analyze the mediating and moderating effects of volition control among areas in self-regulated learning in mathematics for higher grade students of elementary school to be able to do self-regulated learning and volitional control. In addition we need to confirm how different volition control work in self-regulated learning ability for mathematics learning is between high grade elementary school boys and girls as in previous domestic and overseas studies.
The following research problem were selected for the research objectives:
1. How dose volition control(M-VC) work for the relationship among areas of mathematical self-regulated learning(M-SRL) for higher grade students of elementary school?
1-1. Does M-VC work as mediating effects on the relationship in M-SRL areas for higher grade students of elementary school?1-2. Does M-VC work as moderating effects on the relationship in M-SRL areas for higher grade students of elementary school?1-3. What are the behavior characteristics of the M-VC shown by to the higher grade students of elementary school in mathematics classroom?
2. What difference would be shown with the volitional control(M-VC) in self-regulated learning for mathematics learning(M-SRL) between the boys group and girls group in higher grade students of elementary school?
2-1. What difference would be shown in mediating Effects of M-VC in the relationship in M-SRL areas between the boys group and girls group in the higher grade students of elementary school?2-2. What difference would be shown in the moderating effect M-V in the relationship in the M-SRL areas between the boys group and girls group in higher grade students of elementary school?
The methods to investigate the research problems are as follows:
First, the plans for assessment tool were developed in order to measure M-SRL of elementary school upper grade students and conducted the pilot tests for 5th graders. After testing, the dat< a were analyzed for the results, confirmed main testing tool was, and reliability and validity verified through calculating inter-item consistency coefficient and confirmatory factor analysis by main testing of 466 students in 6th grade in Seoul.
Secondly, used to tools developed by Choi et al.(1998) for mathematics learning were used to conducted pilot tests 5th graders in order to measure M-VC of elementary school high grade students. After analyzing the results, the main testing tool was confirmed. The main testing tools were verified for reliability through calculating the inter-item consistency coefficient with sample data.
Thirdly, the mediating effect was analyzed by hierarchical multiple regression analysis sobel verification and moderating effects by hierarchical multiple regression analysis simple and simple slope verification to examine mediating and moderating effects
Finally, behavior characteristics of M-VC in the mathematics classroom by sampling 4 students intentionally whose behavioral control region was higher than the others in M-SRL were analyzed with the results of research problem 1-1 and 1-2 as the center.
The following are the brief results of the research problems:
First, M-VC worked as the mediating effect in relation to the motivation regulation for the cognition regulation in M-SRL of upper graders in elementary school, and explanation power of mediated effect about cognition control of M-VC was the largest. There was no mediated effect between cognition regulation area and the behavior regulation area by environment control.
Secondly, M-VC in M-SRL of elementary school upper graders worked as moderating effects in relation between cognition regulation and motivation regulation and between cognition regulation and behavior regulation. It didn't work as moderating effects in relation between motivation regulation and behavior regulation.
Thirdly, the students who are higher on behavior regulation than the motivation regulation and cognition regulation of M-SRL showed that attention control in cognition regulation was a strong and especially strong control during the exam more than lesson periods. And environment control was slightly different by the level of cognition regulation, but mostly task helper was controlled.
Fourthly, the mediating effect of M-VC appeared more in the boys group than in the girls group. The mediating effect appeared between motivation regulation and behavior regulation in the boys group. The mediating effect appeared in only 1 case between the cognition regulation area and the behavior regulation area.
Fifthly, the moderating effect of M-VC showed more in the girls group than in the boys group. The moderating effect showed the most between motivation regulation and cognition regulation in the boys group.
Finally, the girls whose level of task value was low and whose level of environment control was high showed a high level of asking for help. The boys whose level of sense of self-efficiency was low and level of environment control was high showed a low level of meta-cognition. This was similar to the results of research.
Based on these findings, the following conclusions were drawn:
First, M-VC in M-SRL is working not only as a mediated effect but also as a moderating effect for higher grade students of elementary school. The effect of M-VC is working differently on relation M-SRL area and minor factors. It means that we need to consider M-VC moderating effect on M-SRL of students to find environment of teaching-learning in order to improve self-regulation learning for higher grade in elementary mathematics learning. According to student s level of M-SRL, it is effective to teach with thinking for M-VC to apply positively and the levels of M-VC.
Secondly, M-VC as the mediating effect for the relation of areas of M-SRL for higher grade boys and girls works in boys stronger than in girls. M-VC as the moderating effect for the relation of areas of M-SRL works for girl groups than boy groups. Environment control is only negatively working for the relation areas< of task value and asking help for girl groups. It means that different effects of M-VC are working for girls and boys in relation of M-SRL area and minor factors. Since the working effects in relation of M-SRL area and minor factors are different, teachers need to consider gender difference to teach considering effects of M-VC on each level of M-SRL area.
Thirdly, teachers need to understand M-VC behavior characteristics of students in mathematics class through mediating and moderating effect analysis of M-VC and to use for reducing obstacles in mathematics learning. One girl who has high task value, for example, can study effectively and focus in order to achieve that task, but the other girl who needs to ask for help would be negatively influenced by high level environment control. Asking for help is a good way to figure out difficult problems when students are in trouble. When a girl who has high task value needs the strategy of asking for help, we had better check how much environmental control works. It is effective that we make it lower for that girl. Furthermore, it is required to check various context because there may be other factors unobserved in mathematics class.
It is meaningful because M-SRL is related to learner active and voluntary attitude and possible to improve according to teaching-learning environment. Elementary school is a crucial time to build up. The power of self-regulated learning is developed on learning environment. It could influence future learning as well. It is important that the kind of environment of teaching-learning is offered in order to be good self-regulated learning, not only intellect but also motivation and behavior. As in the results of this study, the M-VC effect applied were various according to relation among M-SRL area and gender. Therefore teachers, parents and educators need to examine the level of M-SRL and consider M-VC effect to improve M-SRL that can be acquired by students in order to offer teaching-learning environment.
I suggest that developing an individualized program that M-VC effect is intervened is required to improve M-SRL of the higher grade students of elementary school as a follow-up study. Moreover I suggest examining more if there are other factors to affect on M-VC like M-VC the relation among M-SRL area. These studies will offer specific and objective data to understand M-SRL of the higher grade students of elementary school. This information can be helpful to improve and develop M-SRL of students.;ȵ @ 첬 $ƘX T P!X x \tǐ @ X YյD ¤\ X pXp t %D аƔ t. pX P@ PYյX Ƿ0 \Ԁ0 t \ l \ٳ, ̸, 0 PYյX Ǵ PŌ <\ Ēt . 췘 $ƘX P@ Yյ \ Ē `t P@ Y PŌ @
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