> *) \pJava Excel API v2.6 Ba==h\:#8X@"1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial + ) , * `-DC, 4"titletitle[alternative]title[translated]author[google(nobreakline)] contributor[author(nobreakline)]"contributor[scopusid(nobreakline)]date[issued]relation[journaltitle]identifier[issn] citationsidentifier[major]subject(nobreakline) publisheridentifier[thesisdegree]contributor[advisor]relation[ispartofseries]relation[index(nobreakline)]typeabstractidentifier[govdoc]identifier[uri]identifier[doi(doi)]identifier[isbn]identifier[ismn]
identifierD Ĭ0D tǩ\ ٳ ĬX Մ2002Y0 Y XֽYtTŐYP Y0 YMasterMaster's ThesisNm 1990D t DP !Ȑ̸ Ǵ t| tǩX 0x T D EX X xD h<\h \ ED ½XՔ t DՔX.
l ֬ $t \ ٳ Ĭ| <\ 1990D0 1999DL 10DX TֽD X. ɐ̸ 10DX ̸ tȬXՔ 49 !X BOD(Biological Oxygen Demand), TN(Total Nitrogen)@ TP(Total Phosphorus)X ̸t. Մ ٳ Ĭ| <\ X, X, XX@ XXٳ 4X <\ lX X.
, 49 ! \ ՄD X. Մ@ Ĭ - ȕ(Seasonal Mann-Kendall Test)D tǩX 1X 4| UxX, t Ĭ 00 Ĭɷ(Seasonal Kendall Slope Estimator)D lt 1X ĳ| UxX. tǔ Dܭ| t Ĭ1D tp !X tȬXՔ X D ɐ̸X Մ i\ DµĬ0t. \ Ť D X J pt0 D t xD i¤0 L8 ǩ\ D x LOWESS(LO-cally WEighted Scatter plot Smoother)| ȩX l0ٳH 0x X T ŀ| X. L, ٳ ĬX X, X, XX@ XXٳ 4X X X x D X0 X X ٳ1 D X. ٳ1 )@ Ť Ŵ X x D д0 \ )<\ Ŵ ι@ !X Մ | piX XX |\ D !XՔ )t.
!ļ Մ Ŵ ٳ1 D X 4 X X D E\ L, \ t М xD X0 X ļ $0̀XɷX T@ ED pȬX. 1990D 1996DX $ļ 0̀XɷD pȬX 0ɷX T| X.
t@ @ , l0ٳH X@ X BOD <\ X, TN TP XՔ D . ҈ X BOD lЌ XՔ D . XX@ XXٳ BOD 1D t JD 1990D0 1999D 10D X T X <\ . TN TP XՔ D Ȱ. 췘 LOWESS| ȩ\ , $ X P 96D t\ BOD, TN TPX ĳ XՔ D t ǔ <\ Ь. tǔ 90D ̀0 X
й̬ Ͱ̬ X $XάD X ̬$t X 96D0 0թ0, )X 0t T0 L8<\ .
l 1990D0 1999D 10DX 0ٳH Ĭ - ȕ ٳ1 D ȩX ٳ ĬX X ! ļ D X. \ LOWESS Մ0D ȩX l0ٳH X T| tǔ t tȬXՔ| X. tǔ ٳ Ĭ X ·x D XՌ X \ ļ 0̀Xɷ T@ ED pȬh<\h ļ T X xD ` .;National fixed station stream quality monitoring networks have now been in existence for over ten years. The resulting data bases provide opportunities and challenges for statistical trend assessment.
The long-term trends of water quality were used to analyze 49 stations in Nakdong River. Water quality parameters tested in this study is the monthly data of BOD(Biological Oxygen Demand), TN(Total Nitrogen) and TP(Total Phosphorus) measured from 1990 to 1999. The long-term trend was analyzed by seasonal Mann-Kendall test. This is a robust non-parametric statistical test for monotone trends. It is robust towards missing values, values reported as "below the detection limit", seasonal effects and non-normality. The magnitude of trend was estimated by seasonal kendall slope estimator. This estimation method assumes that the trend is constant during the period analyzed. Kendall slope estimator gives the estimated change in concentration per year. And stream water concentrations were plotted against time with a smoothed, locally weighted regression line(LOWESS) as an overlay to show general patterns in the data. The LOWESS Technique is a nonparametric smoothing procedure that uses a weighted, least squares regre ssion model to fit observations within specified window, which in this case was set to 0.5. It is a useful exploratory tool because it fits a regression model through data without making any assumptions about what type of model the data might fit(linear, quadratic, etc.).
Nakdong river is divided into four parts, that is watershed of upstream and midstream and western and eastern watershed of downstream. So, in order to infer this regional trends, a meta-analytical technique was applied first described by Van Belle and Hughes that allows, with some rest<rictions, trend results from multiple sites to be combined into a single estimate of trend.
The results of Seasonal Mann-Kendall Test that there were downward trends of BOD and there were upward trends of TN and TP in upstream watershed. Specially, trends of BOD were dominantly downward in midstream watershed. Trends of BOD exhibited no trend and for TN and TP, there were upward trends in western and eastern downstream watershed. But LOWESS curves suggest that BOD, TN and TP concentrations generally increased between 1990 and about 1996, then resumed decreasing. The downward trends since 1996 could be attributable to increase of wastewater treatment facilities in the early 1990s and enhanced effluent standard in 1996. Also the period of record is divided into 1990-1995 and 1996-1999 and the analysis for temporal trends using the nonparametric Seasonal Mann-Kendall Test is needed.~http://dspace.ewha.ac.kr/handle/2015.oak/190436;
http://dcollection.ewha.ac.kr/jsp/common/DcLoOrgPer.jsp?sItemId=000000070823;@Ce|(!CPrs BKm~ AJlm
/.P=_^+
-0
dMbP?_*+%" ,,??U
!
l>@
"#$%&'(Root EntryWorkbook2SummaryInformation(DocumentSummaryInformation8!