> SR \pJava Excel API v2.6 Ba==h\:#8X@"1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial + ) , * `~DC, 4$titletitle[alternative]title[translated]author[google(nobreakline)] contributor[author(nobreakline)]"contributor[scopusid(nobreakline)]date[issued]relation[journaltitle]identifier[issn] citationsidentifier[major]subject(nobreakline) publisheridentifier[thesisdegree]contributor[advisor]relation[ispartofseries]relation[index(nobreakline)]typeabstractidentifier[govdoc]identifier[uri]identifier[doi(doi)]identifier[isbn]identifier[ismn]
identifier3 Y 8P \֩X Yյ1 \ Yյ 1 x ¬X !% ܭ]Analyzing Predicting Variables of the Learning Outcome in Using Mathematics Digital Textbooks2010 Y P!YtTŐYP YMasterlMaster's ThesisG9With the rapid changes in society and the abrupt increase in the quantity of information, there has arisen a need to introduce a new instructional media in the pedagogical environment of elementary and middle schools, a media that will continue to carry out the fundamental functions performed by pre-existing printed textbook publications while additionally providing means for promptly reflecting new knowledge and presenting a broad variety of learning materials.
Digital textbooks are capable of speedily reflecting new updated information, and provide various multimedia functions which support self-directed, creative learning on the part of the learner. Hence digital textbooks are rising in importance as an instructional media that replaces printed textbooks.
Hitherto, the most active area of research conducted in relation to digital textbooks is the study regarding their effectiveness. However, compared to groups who use printed textbooks, those using digital textbooks have failed to demonstrate consistency in effectiveness and have revealed discrepancies according to the applied region, subject matter, and other variables. Accordingly, the direction for research in the future needs to focus on illuminating the variables that influence the learning outcome of students in their studies using digital textbooks in order to stimulate their learning and to improve their performance, rather than limiting the research to simply verifying the effectiveness of digital textbooks.
Therefore, in this present research, the author has assigned the two factors of information literacy and academic self-efficacy, which previous studies have identified as affecting the learning outcomes of students in studies using mathematics subject material and ICT, as the learner characteristic variables, and also assigned cognitive presence as the learning process variable. The following research seeks to elucidate whether these variables can significantly predict learning outcomes in learning using mathematics digital textbooks.
The purpose of this research is to identify the significant variables that impact learning outcomes in learning using mathematics digital textbooks, and thereby to improve the efficacy in the use of digital textbooks on-site in schools. In accordance with this objective, this research addresses the following specific problems.
1. Is there significant relationship between information literacy, academic self-efficacy, achievement and satisfaction in using mathematics digital textbooks?
2. Does cognitive presence mediate the effect of information literacy and academic self-efficacy on achievement in using mathematics digital textbooks?
3. Does cognitive presence mediate the effect of information literacy and academic self-efficacy on satisfaction in using mathematics digital textbooks?
To implement this research, convenience sampling was used to select 87 students in the fifth grade who were studying using digital textbooks while attending D elementary school in Incheon, an institution that has been designated as a research school for digital textbooks. Among these, a total of 8 students were excluded due to their failure to respond to all measurements or for responding in bad faith, leaving a total of 79 students (38 males and 41 females) as final participants in the research.
The learners began studying the '5th grade - B' mathematics subject with digi< tal textbooks beginning in September, 2009. They received 4 sessions of mathematics classes per week over a course of 12 weeks. While learning via digital textbooks was being conducted, measurements were made of the information literacy, academic self-efficacy, cognitive presence, and level of satisfaction among the sampled learners, and evaluations of academic achievement were made at the end of the semester.After all the data was collected, the data was input to perform statistical processing and analyses, with the criterion of significance level set at .05. The results of this research are summarized in the following.
First, as the result of correlation analysis on information literacy, academic self-efficacy, cognitive presence, achievement, and satisfaction,had meaningful relationship with statistical significance .05. There were significant, positive correlations of cognitive presence(r=.303, p<.05), academic self-efficacy(r=.292, p<.05), and information literacy(r=.239, p<.05) for achievement. Satisfaction had a significant, positive correlation with cognitive presence(r=.689, p<.05), information literacy(r=.515, p<.05), and academic self-efficacy(r=.368, p<.05).
Secondly, cognitive presence did not mediate the effect of information literacy and academic self-efficacy on achievement in learning using mathematics digital textbooks. Testing the mediation using Judd and Kenny steps(1981), information literacy significantly predicted achievement(=.239, p<.05) and cognitive presence(=.745, p<.05). However, when both information literacy and cognitive presence were put into regression equation to predict achievement, cognitive presence did not predict achievement(=.282, p>.05). Thus, concluded that cognitive presence did not mediate the effect of information literacy on achievement. Next, academic self-efficacy significantly predicted achievement(=.292, p<.05), and cognitive presence(=.646, p<.05). However, when both academic self-efficacy and cognitive presence were put into regression equation to predict achievement, cognitive presence did not predict achievement(=.197, p>.05). Therefore, concluded that cognitive presence did not mediate the effect of academic self-efficacy on achievement.
Thirdly, cognitive presence significantly mediated the effect of information literacy and academic self-efficacy on satisfaction in learning using mathematics digital textbooks. Testing the mediation, information literacy significantly predicted satisfaction(=.515, p<.05), and when both information literacy and cognitive presence were put into regression equation, cognitive presence significantly predicted satisfaction(=.686, p<.05). Thus, concluded that cognitive presence mediated the effect of information literacy on satisfaction. Next, academic self-efficacy significantly predicted satisfaction(=.368, p<.05), and when both academic self-efficacy and cognitive presence were put into regression equation, cognitive presence significantly predicted satisfaction(=.775, p<.05). Therefore, the researcher concluded that cognitive presence mediated the effect of academic self-efficacy on satisfaction.
The significance of this research is that it provides the fundamental data for promoting the effective use of digital textbooks, by means of identifying the learner variables that affect learning outcomes in learning using mathematics digital textbooks. This research has analyzed that information literacy, academic self-efficacy, and cognitive presence do indeed significantly predict learning outcomes in learning using mathematics digital textbooks. Therefore, in order to stimulate the learning of students and moreover to enhance their performance, preceding steps need to be taken to prepare strategies for elevating the level of information literacy and academic self-efficacy among learners beforehand. Meanwhile, this study also recognizes the following areas of limitation and presents proposals for respectively addressing these limitations.
First, it should be noted that this research targeted a pool of students attending the fifth grade i< n D elementary school in Incheon, an institution that has been designated as a digital textbooks research school, and measured the relations between each respective variable within the mathematics subject, which indicates that there may be limitations to generalizing the results of this research. The effectiveness of digital textbooks has exhibited degrees of discrepancy according to region and subject matter, and hence the relations between the respective variables in learning utilizing digital textbooks and the predictive capacity of these variables may also differ according to the subject matter or the region where the learner resides. Therefore, there is a need to conduct continued studies encompassing other subjects or students from other regions in order to generalize the research model presented herein.
Secondly, the tools of examination used in the present research, with the exception of the academic achievement evaluation, all collected measurements by means of self-reporting by the students and are hence liable to subjectivity. Therefore, this research need to be supplemented by a variety of measurement techniques including observations, interviews and analyses of video records in an effort to obtain more objective and multifaceted data and in-depth research.
Thirdly, studies need to be made examine a greater variety of learner variables other than information literacy, academic self-efficacy, and cognitive presence in order to identify their capacity for predicting learning outcomes. Although this research limited itself to designating information literacy and academic self-efficacy as the learner characteristic variables and cognitive presence as the learning process variable, there remains the need to verify whether other variables such as ICT utilization skills, prior knowledge, or flow - factors that have been found to affect learning outcomes in studies using ICT - also have a significant impact on learning outcomes in learning using digital textbooks. Continued research to illuminate which variables have the most meaningful effect on learning outcomes in learning using digital textbooks must seek to enhance the effectiveness of digital textbooks and moreover to enable the preparation of strategies for improving the learning outcomes of students.; `t TX X t h 0|, , YPX P·Yյ Xֽ 0tX EP ǔ 0@ \ Xt \ D XՌ X @ Yյ ̸| XՔ P·Yյ 乴X ĳt DՔXՌ . 8P(digital textbook) EP| ȐT\ P·Yյ 乴\, \ X \ t X 䲑\ @ 0D X YյX 0ĳ, =X YյD X0 L8 EP| XXՔ ɔ\ P·Yյ 乴\ .
t 0| 8PX 1 ( l ֬ \ ɉ <ǘ, 8PX \֩t EP \֩ DPX |1 ǌ 1D д X ȩ ļ, ļ, xļ\ (t| д (8ֹ, l, X x, 2008; 81, tǅ, l, 2008 ; \ , l, 2009). 0| ^<\X l)@ 8PX |x 1D X0 1D ¤0 t, 8P \֩ YյX 1, YյX Yյ ƥD XΔ xD ܭ` DՔ1t 0. t l l 0D t, YP ICT| \֩\ Yյ YյX Yյ1 ƥD 0@ Y 0֥D Yյ 1x, x ¬D Yյ x<\ X, t\ xt Y 8P| \֩\ Yյ Yյ1| XXՌ !XՔ| tଐ \.
lX @ 8P| \֩\ Yյ Yյ1 X\ ƥD XΔ xD ܭX YP ֥ 8P \֩X D t ȩXՔp .05), 0 Y1ĳ| !XՔp Ǵ x ¬t x<\ ǩX JŔ䲔 Ь. L<\ P Yյ 1xx Y 0֥@ Y1ĳ| XXՌ !X

.05), Y 0֥t Y1ĳ| !XՔp Ǵ x ¬@ x<\ ǩX JŔ <\ . t\ l x ¬t Y1ĳ 䲔 \ ̹qĳ, 8tհ%, ( Yյ D !\䲔 l @ Ǭ\ }D ̲(l, @, $, 2008; Kanuka & Garrison, 2004).
K, Y 8P \֩ Yյ YյX 0, Y 0֥t ̹qĳ| !XՔp Ǵ x ¬@ x<\ ǩXՔ <\ Ь. l t l<\ t, 0 ̹qĳ| XXՌ !X

@
!"#$%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ACDEFGHIKLMNOPQRoot EntryWorkbookSummaryInformation(BDocumentSummaryInformation8J