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identifier!}0Yյ p DٳX p0 ļ p0X `The Effects of Early Screening and Intervention for Children at-risk of Reading Underachievement2010Y ¬YtTŐYP YDoctor)lDoctoral ThesisThe purpose of this study was to develop a screening tests for children at risk of reading uncerachievement, to validate the effectiveness of predicting reading skills, and to confirm the early-stage intervention program's enhancing effects on the children's reading capability. The first part of the research was conducted with 155 elementary first grad students. At the beginning of the school year, screening tests composed of phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming(RAN), orthographic knowledge, and working memory were conducted. At the end of the school year, word recognition(word and pesudo-word), oral reading fluency, and reading comprehension tests used to measure the children's reading skills. Results from these tests were compared with those from the beginning of the year to verify how effectively the screening predicted the reading skills.
To test the prediction abilities of screening system, I conducted simple correlation analysis and stepwise regression analysis. The results showed s high correlation between the children's reading skills and screening tests. In addition, the screening results were able to predict the reading skills at the end of school year. In particular, word and pseudo-word reading, fluency, and comprehension were very effectively predicted. Among the screening sub-tests, phonological deletion, digit naming, object naming, and sound-letter correspondence knowledge were determined as significant explanatory variables. However, it is of note that 12 screening sub-factors had a very high correlation with all reading skill predictor sub-factors, and in light of the mutual relevance among the independent variables, I concluded the it is worthwhile to consider working memory and other variables no integrated in the regression model.
The second part of the research was guided by the screening results and was focused on the at-risk children. I developed an early intervention program based on phonics instruction integrated with various other reading elements and tested its effects on improving reading skills. Fourteen children who participated in the intervention program composed the experimental group, while 18 non-participating children composed the comparison group. The two groups' word reading, oral reading fluency, and reading comprehension were measures in May, August, and November for a total of three times, while pseudo-word recognition was only measured once in November. Repeated measure ANOVA was used to compare the two groups and to test the intervention program's effectiveness. Over time, the experimental group performed better the comparison group in word reading, oral reading fluency, and reading comprehension. The difference between the two groups were further accentuated as time continued to progress. However, when the final analysis was performed in November, only the oral reading fluency did not show a significant difference between the two groups. This suggests that unlike word recognition and comprehension, fluency cannot be dramatically changed in a short period of time. Furthermore, when comparing the temporal changes of the two groups, the experimental group continuously showed very significant progress during the entire duration of the intervention while the comparison group did not show much change, again proving the necessity of an early intervention. Additionally, there was a significant statistical difference in the tw< o groups' pseudo-word reading skills based on one-way ANOVA. Taken together, these results indicate that early intervention program can significantly improve children's reading skills.
To further ascertain clinical implications besides statistical verification of our research hypothesis, additional analysis was performed to discern how closely the children belonging to the risk group were in proximity with the normal group. Upon independent samples t-test, it was determined that word reading and reading comprehension did not show a significant difference from the normal froup, but pseudo-word reading and oral reading fluency still showed a difference. This implied that early intervention is effective but a longer focused intervention would be required for developing the reading skills of the at-risk children to the normal level.
The first significance of this study is that findings demonstrate the possibility for early screening by verifying that our multivariate and comprehensive screening test can effectively predict future reading skills. The second significance is that the research was a short-term longitudinal study spanning about nine months form the beginning to the end of the school year. The third significance and implications is that, by verifying the effectiveness of early intervention with first-grad elementary students, secondary issues that could result from underachievement and be prevented by rescuing at-risk children at an early state. However, the limitations that exist with the current study period, tools, subjects, and procedures should be taken into consideration in future studies to continuously enhance the effectiveness of early screening and early intervention.; lX @ }0Yյ p DٳD p0 ļ` ǔ | l1X }0 %D !` ǔ | X, ļ 0| p \ <\ ܭ DٳŌ }0 % D \ p0 \D \ | XՔ t. l 1@ p0 ļX !%D LD0 t YP 1YD Dٳ 155D <\ X LǴx, `tǄ0, ̐ 0<\ l1 ļ| YD X, ļ YD й 貴Ŭx(貴 4X 貴), }0 =1 }0 tt%<\ !\ }0 %D ȹ <\ !` ǔ | LDX.
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